A Critique on a Quantitative Study of Diabetes - Research Paper Example

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A Research Critique on a Quantitative Study of Diabetes Ugommah Miller Course: MRSHison 433V Instructor: Emgi Lawson Date 2012/07/20 A Research Critique on a Quantitative Study of Diabetes Diabetes is one of the world’s most emergent diseases that gains worldwide attention due to being linked to lifestyle choices, and is considered to be a growing epidemic among the global population (Barnett, Barnett, & Kumar, 2009)…
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A Research Critique on a Quantitative Study of Diabetes Ugommah Miller MRSHison 433V Emgi Lawson 07/20 A Research Critique on a Quantitative Study of Diabetes Diabetes is one of the world’s most emergent diseases that gains worldwide attention due to being linked to lifestyle choices, and is considered to be a growing epidemic among the global population (Barnett, Barnett, & Kumar, 2009). Two types of diabetes are identified based on the age of onset: Type 1 diabetes occurs during the period from childhood up to late adolescence or early adulthood; and type 2, or adult-onset diabetes, occurs during adulthood. Those with type 1 diabetes are usually underweight, require insulin shots to regulate sugar levels, and have adjusted to their lifestyle from an early age. Those who have type 2 diabetes are usually overweight to a point of obesity, and, mostly, are physically inactive (Allman, 2008). The genetic basis for diabetes has been established as a hereditary mutation in insulin-producing genes, resulting in inefficient release of insulin to regulate glucose production. For people with type 1 diabetes this is usually the case, but for those with type 2, aside from excess consumption of carbohydrates and other sources of sugar, the presence of adipose tissue adds up to the additional glucose circulating in the body, creating the need for additional insulin (Lowe, 2001). Therefore, it is recommended that for people with type 2 diabetes, weight loss, increase in dietary fiber, and controlling food consumption are touted as the most effective ways for health improvement. In a meta-analysis study by Anderson, Kendall, Randles, and Jenkins (2004), diabetic patients that consumed food with moderate carbohydrates and high fiber content were shown to have lower postprandial plasma glucose and levels of low-density lipoproteins and triglycerides. Consumption of foods with low glycemic indices was associated with lower plasma glucose values and glycated protein values. Also, by decreasing the BMI of diabetic patients who are either overweight or obese, better quality of life can be attained. The authors identified certain studies and investigations that were involved with the creation of dietary information for diabetics and their doctors. Recommendations for most diabetic patients were made, such as the increase in intake of high-fiber foods, low-glycemic index foods, reduction of sugars and saturated and/or trans-fatty acids in the diet (Anderson et al., 2004). Whole grains, vegetables, and fruits were most recommended not only for diabetes control but also for other related diseases such as obesity and cardiac and heart diseases. These should constitute roughly 50-60% of the total energy source for diabetics. Also, decreasing protein intake up to as much as 11-18% of total energy needed was suggested to prevent the kidneys from being overworked. These recommendations were made based on evidences of the meta-analysis from an average of 25 independent studies. These researches consisted of observational, controlled, randomized, and combined random and controlled trials (RCT). The observational studies compared data before and after the implementation of dietary intervention. The controlled trials compared controlled diet with uncontrolled diet. The randomized trials used randomization in giving out treatments to the samples. The RCT trials combined controlled diet with randomization of samples (Anderson et al., 2004). Results obtained from the different studies are: up to 20% decrease in postprandial plasma glucose can be observed just by increasing high-fiber intake, and cholesterol levels can be decreased by up to 8% by diet remediation alone (Anderson et al., 2004). By comparing the results, checking their validity and making a consensus, the authors were able to identify several factors that could help diabetic patients to lose and maintain their weight and, eventually, control their blood sugar in the process. The whole meta-analysis of different studies may be able to create a good generalization with regard to the diabetic patients’ dietary needs. Due to the nature of such a study, patient privacy is maintained properly because only the findings are used to make an overview of each study. Also, comparisons of several commonalities such as glycemic index, carbohydrate, fat and fiber intake, as well as the effect of weight loss in relation to blood glucose levels were reported (Anderson et al., 2004). However, since each of the studies were only summarized and reported against the others, it may be difficult to attest the validity of each summary. Additional data such as the number of participants per study, mean average weight, blood glucose levels etc. will still be necessary in order to check whether there is enough sample size or not. Also, since only the summaries of the similar points in each study are given, only rough estimates such as percentages can be derived from them. Even so, since the multiple studies used for meta-analysis came from a multitude of studies from across the globe, most of these studies were able to create generalized recommendations due to the similarities in the results that researchers were able to generate. Even if the article by Anderson et al. was made from meta-analysis, it still has enough valuable information with regard to the dietary education of diabetic patients, nutritionists and healthcare providers. On the basis of the collected data from the meta-analysis, nutritionists may be able to make a proper nutritional and weight loss plan guide for patients, and doctors could monitor their patient’s glucose levels before and after their entering a new diet and exercise regimen. Also, other highlights such as the effects of high-fiber food on blood-glucose and cholesterol levels in diabetics are of utter importance, especially since type 2 diabetes is affected directly by environmental factors such as the patients’ food preferences. By making recommendations as stated in the article and following them, diabetic patients, especially those with type 2, can be informed of better choices with regard to nutrition and exercise, and eventually can overcome their diabetes and the need for insulin to live a normal life. References Allman, T. (2008). Diabetes. New York, NY: Infobase Publishing. Anderson, J. W., Randles, K., Kendall, C., & Jenkins, D. (2004). Carbohydrate and fiber recommendations for individuals with diabetes: a quantitative assessment and meta-analysis of the evidence. Journal of the American College of Nutrition , 23 (1): 5-17. Barnett, A. H., Barnett, T., & Kumar, S. (2009). Obesity and diabetes (2nd Ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Lowe, W. L. (2001). Genetics of diabetes mellitus. Norwell, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Read More
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