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Epidemiology-HIV/AIDS - Research Paper Example

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Epidemiology aids in evaluating and planning out the approaches to check the disease and describes the integral part of the disease by collecting all the relevant information such as the data collection and its interpretation, various terminologies related with the disease…
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Epidemiology is a study carried out to know the frequency of occurrence of any disease in different groups of population. Even though there is an improvement in the lines of treatment of AIDS, AIDS pandemic is known to kill 2.1 million people in the year 2007, amongst these 330,000 were children below the age of 15. Reports reveal that around 33.2 million individuals were suffering with this disease in 2007 involving 2.5 million children also, it was calculated approximately that 2.5 million people got the fresh infection, of these 420,000 were children (AIDS epidemic Update). Reports of 2007 state that sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected area, where 68% people living with the disease and 76% deaths are reported due to AIDS, fresh infections encompass 1.7 million cases, making a total of 22.5 million HIV individuals. Estimates reveal that 61% of reported cases were women (AIDS epidemic Update) with prevalence in South Africa followed by Nigeria and India (Mcneil, 2007). Reports also state that life expectancy in the worst affected regions has decreased as in the year 2006 from 65 to 35 in Botswana (Kallings, 2008). The major reason that emerged to be the cause of disease is lack of awareness and lack of health care resources, contributed by the possibility of sexual contacts with at-risk males. Geographical inequality, poor living conditions are also one of the leading causes for the prevalence of the disease. Historical Significance Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first identified in gay men in United States in 1981 and therefore termed as GRID (Gay- Related Immune Deficiency). However, the existence of disease is traced long back in 1959 and is reported as one of the articles in CNN states that “1959 and all that: Immunodeficiency viruses” by Simon Wain-Hobson of the Pasteur Institute in Nature (Vol. 391, 5 February 1998, pp. 532-533). It is evident that both forms of the AIDS causing virus called as Human Immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 and HIV-2 originated in Africa and came to human race from chimpanzees (HIV-1) and sooty mangabeys (for HIV-2) (History of AIDS). Any kind of adaptation that microbes make is solely related to the changing ecological niches and habitats, in 1982, the American Red Cross referred the immune deficiency disease as AIDS. In 1983, Dr. Luc Montagnier working at Pasteur Institute in France isolated LAV (Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus) retrovirus. In 1984, Dr. Robert Gallo, working at National Cancer Institute isolated the HTLV-III (Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus III) a retrovirus. HTLV-III continued as the reference of AIDS in 1985 by "The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) as “primary etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome” later in 1985, HTLV-III and LAV were found to be the same viruses and then they were designated as HIV (History of AIDS). Methodology to Analyze Prevalence in Teenage HIV or AIDS cases have been diagnosed in individuals belonging to the age group of 13 to 24 years in various states of United States. Surveillance report was prepared by Rangel et al, (2006) to understand the changing trend in last five years. The motive of the report was to define the current scenario of the human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/ AIDS) prevalence in United States among the teens, adolescents and young adults as little research has been carried out in this area. It is imperative to study the epidemiological prevalence of the disease as this group ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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