Epidemiology-HIV/AIDS - Research Paper Example

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Epidemiology aids in evaluating and planning out the approaches to check the disease and describes the integral part of the disease by collecting all the relevant information such as the data collection and its interpretation, various terminologies related with the disease…
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Epidemiology is a study carried out to know the frequency of occurrence of any disease in different groups of population. Even though there is an improvement in the lines of treatment of AIDS, AIDS pandemic is known to kill 2.1 million people in the year 2007, amongst these 330,000 were children below the age of 15. Reports reveal that around 33.2 million individuals were suffering with this disease in 2007 involving 2.5 million children also, it was calculated approximately that 2.5 million people got the fresh infection, of these 420,000 were children (AIDS epidemic Update). Reports of 2007 state that sub-Saharan Africa is the most affected area, where 68% people living with the disease and 76% deaths are reported due to AIDS, fresh infections encompass 1.7 million cases, making a total of 22.5 million HIV individuals. Estimates reveal that 61% of reported cases were women (AIDS epidemic Update) with prevalence in South Africa followed by Nigeria and India (Mcneil, 2007). Reports also state that life expectancy in the worst affected regions has decreased as in the year 2006 from 65 to 35 in Botswana (Kallings, 2008). The major reason that emerged to be the cause of disease is lack of awareness and lack of health care resources, contributed by the possibility of sexual contacts with at-risk males. Geographical inequality, poor living conditions are also one of the leading causes for the prevalence of the disease. Historical Significance Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was first identified in gay men in United States in 1981 and therefore termed as GRID (Gay- Related Immune Deficiency). However, the existence of disease is traced long back in 1959 and is reported as one of the articles in CNN states that “1959 and all that: Immunodeficiency viruses” by Simon Wain-Hobson of the Pasteur Institute in Nature (Vol. 391, 5 February 1998, pp. 532-533). It is evident that both forms of the AIDS causing virus called as Human Immunodeficiency virus HIV-1 and HIV-2 originated in Africa and came to human race from chimpanzees (HIV-1) and sooty mangabeys (for HIV-2) (History of AIDS). Any kind of adaptation that microbes make is solely related to the changing ecological niches and habitats, in 1982, the American Red Cross referred the immune deficiency disease as AIDS. In 1983, Dr. Luc Montagnier working at Pasteur Institute in France isolated LAV (Lymphadenopathy-Associated Virus) retrovirus. In 1984, Dr. Robert Gallo, working at National Cancer Institute isolated the HTLV-III (Human T-Cell Lymphotropic Virus III) a retrovirus. HTLV-III continued as the reference of AIDS in 1985 by "The Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA) as “primary etiologic agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome” later in 1985, HTLV-III and LAV were found to be the same viruses and then they were designated as HIV (History of AIDS). Methodology to Analyze Prevalence in Teenage HIV or AIDS cases have been diagnosed in individuals belonging to the age group of 13 to 24 years in various states of United States. Surveillance report was prepared by Rangel et al, (2006) to understand the changing trend in last five years. The motive of the report was to define the current scenario of the human immunodeficiency virus/ acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/ AIDS) prevalence in United States among the teens, adolescents and young adults as little research has been carried out in this area. It is imperative to study the epidemiological prevalence of the disease as this group ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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I had an issue with a research paper types of works. All until I came across this website and this particular essay. Even though "Epidemiology-HIV/AIDS" is far from my studies, the structure is so great that I use it all the time as an example for my own works.



...?The disease of AIDS and HIV is one which continues to be problematic within various s and which is defined as detrimental at the federal level.The public health topic is one which continues to be addressed at federal, state and local levels, all which carry responsibilities and activities for those who are suffering from AIDS. The issue which is linked to the disease is one which continues to be defined by the global issue as well as the needs which are a part of each community. Each of the programs which have been developed is specific to the need to assist in stopping the disease while helping those who are suffering from HIV or AIDS. At a federal...
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...? HIV and AIDS al Affiliation HIV and AIDs stand for Human Immunodeficiency virus and Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome respectively. They are related diseases which have infected and killed a high proportion of the global population, extending attention from national to international boundaries for more research, and guidance to treatment and prevention measures. Unlike the myths around, they are diseases that can infect anyone in spite of his or her race, gender, or age. Based on the period of discovery the diseases could be traced back in Africa from where it is believed to have developed and spread. They destroy the human immune system, specifically the CD4 bearing cells (CD4+ T cells and Macrophages). The HIV takes control... of the...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in the United States with an Emphasis on Demographic Analysis

...bites. Epidemiological data have continued largely to characterize AIDS as critical for men who have sex with men and injecting drug users; over eight in ten of the cumulative reported AIDS cases nationwide have occurred between these two groups (Appendix A). With the rise in the numbers of individuals diagnosed HIV positive or living with AIDS, the nation has also witnessed an increasing diversity in the epidemiology of AIDS. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) tracking of reported AIDS cases has indicated that, while the epidemiology of AIDS remains...
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...HIV/AIDS In 1981, gay men in San Francisco and New York began dying from diseases which were normally relatively rare, such as a cancer called Kaposi's sarcoma, and a lung disease called Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Reports published by the Centers for Disease control about the occurrence of these diseases in gay men marked the new awareness of AIDS in America. Later in 1981 the first case of AIDS was noted in the UK, and in subsequent years, cases were noted in Haiti, Africa, and Europe, indicating that the disease was a world-wide phenomenon. When cases began turning up in women and children it could no longer be called a "gay disease" (AVERT, 2006) and it was...
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...Running Head: HIV/AIDS Symptoms and Treatments of HIV/ AIDS By _________________ HIV/AIDS HIV mainly infects cells bearing the CD4 surface molecule, which acts as a specific receptor for the viral envelope protein, gp120. Such cells are found predominantly within the immune system and include T-helper lymphocytes, monocytes and antigen-presenting cells. However, there are also CD4+cells within the central nervous system, these being the microglial cells which are of monocyte or macrophage lineage. These cells can be productively infected by HIV in vitro, and in vivo there is evidence of an...
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..., Linda (2001). The Global Epidemiology of HIV/AIDS in British Medical Bulletin 58 (1): 7. (2001):pp.7-18. Also available at http://bmb.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/reprint/58/1/7 NIAID or National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (1998). “How HIV Causes AIDS” in Fact Sheet Online article, accessed on February 12, 2008. http://www.albany.edu/sph/AIDS/howhiv.html Noble, Rob. “United Kingdom Statistics Summary” in www.AVERT.org Online article, last updated on February 7, 2008, accessed on February 12, 2008. http://www.avert.org/uksummary.htm Pembrey, Graham (2007). “History of HIV/AIDS in the UK, 1981-95.” In www.AVERT.org Online article, last updated on November 13, 2007, accessed on February 12, 2008. http... ...
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...and needle sharing among injectable drug users. There is no cure for AIDS, even while a number of drugs have been developed thazt enable the disease to be managed for at least a few years. Presently “80-90% of patients with AIDS have died within 3-5 years after diagnosis with AIDS” (State, 2007). One of the major problems with AIDS is that a person may become HIV positive but remain symptom-free for years. But they are capable of transmitting HIV within days of becoming infected. The lag time between becoming infected and the onset of full-blown AIDS has been one of the most difficult epidemiological...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay


...Your Section December 3, Your email Address Living with a disease like HIV/AIDS is not easy. Not only can HIV/AIDS create psychological illnesses in others, but also, often people diagnosed with HIV/AIDS have co-morbid psychiatric conditions along with substance abuse disorder. There is not enough data present about the health services used by HIV/AIDS patients with mental illnesses and/or substance abuse disorder. The advances in medicine in the 90s, and the anti-HIV combination therapies made it possible for people with HIV/AIDS to live longer,...
4 Pages(1000 words)Essay

HIV/AIDS disease

...suffering from AIDS. Two most pivotal weapons to fight against AIDS are awareness and education. HIV/AIDS needs to be nullified to continue the development of the world and save the lives of millions of people. It is never too late for people who are suffering from AIDS/HIV as people are living longer lives. References AIDS. (2012). HIV in the United States: AT a Glance. Retrieved from: http://aids.gov/hiv-aids-basics/hiv-aids-101/statistics/. Avert. (2014). Worldwide HIV and AIDS Statistics....
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper


...HIV/AIDS I select two articles for review both of which talk about the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in Africa. HIV/AIDS is a major pandemic that continue to frustrate the efforts by African countries in their quest to attain the MDG 6 goals. HIV/AIDS continue to rage in Africa often sustained by poor cultures and extreme poverty. In the first article HIV/AIDS Epidemic Still Ravaging African Countries by VOA’s Kim Lewis, the author dispels the notion that some of the African countries are winning the war against HIV/AIDS. The article asserts...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay
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