SURGICAL SITES INFECTION Susan Avila-Brown Section C February 27, 2012 Introduction Surgical site infections (SSIs) generally refer to infections that arise in patients following a surgical operation. It may vary from a random and short-lived wound discharge within 7-10 days following the surgery or to a potentially deadly complication such as a sternal infection following an open heart surgery (Cruise & Foord, 2000)…
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Surgical infections were a very common eventuality from the early 19th Century. Evidently, the sheer magnitude of the risk imposed by SSIs to both the medical practitioners and, in particular, patients cannot be overlooked. Its impact on the healthcare system is truly innate-costs, mortality, and morbidity. In the year 1992, the Center for Disease Control (CDC) renamed all infections related to operation procedures from surgical wound infections to surgical site infections for a wider coverage and more accurate representation of related infections. The close relationship between healthcare practice, mortality, morbidity, and the cost element associated with the aforementioned shall constitute the crux of the case for greater innovation for effective SSIs management. It is possible that majority of SSIs are preventable. To this end several bodies are tasked with the responsibilities of policy formulation (guidelines and recommendations) that are aimed towards largely preventing and controlling surgical site infections by all healthcare professionals. Although there has been much improvements in surgical site infections prevention, hospital acquired infections continue to increase globally (Alvarado, 2000). Most contamination by SSIs occurs through contamination of the incision by microorganisms from the body of the patient during surgery. Consequently it is prudent that in light of this mechanism of infection that substantial reduction of SSI infections can be undertaken in essentially one of three stages: Pre-operation phase, intra-operation phase, and post-operation phase. In the pre-operation phase, I observe how surgical practices influence patient-infection right before undergoing the surgical procedure itself. The larger working area in surgical operations is the skin. Various types of bacteria inhabit the skin with up to 50% being staphylococcus. The primary source of wound infection during surgical operation has been found to be the skin. Evidence from a research done on the effects of body disinfection on intra-operation wound infection shows that by washing the skin where the incision is to be made with a pre-operation wash having chlorhexidine reduces the bacteria add up on the skin by eighty to ninety percent, and as such a reduction in the wound infection (Bryne, Cuschieri, Napier, & Phillips, 2003). A ten year research on 62,939 wounds determine whether or not the removal of hair from the skin to be operated on (shaving) and its timing could be contributive to surgical site infections. It was established that infection risk amplifies with the increase in duration of the time spent between shaving and conduction of the actual operation. Surgical sites that were shaved two hours before surgery were found to have a clean wound infection rate of 2.3% (Cruse & Foord, 2000).Where the body hair was clipped instead of being shaven recorded a clean wound infection rate of 1.7%. Where the body hair was neither shaved nor clipped, the wound infection rate was seen to drop to a mere 0.9%.The study concluded that where shaving is essential before surgery, then it should be done as closest to the commencement of the surgery as possible. Perhaps the most successful method of combating surgical site infections was seen through the pioneering use of antiseptic surgery by Ignaz
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According to Harvard Medical Study, surgical lesion infection is the second largest type of unfavorable events. Mistakes during administration of some antibiotic prophylaxis before surgery has resulted in certain infections during some postoperative procedures as stated by Burke (2003).
Staphylococcus Infection Abstract This essay is concerned with staphylococcal infections, in particular those caused by staphylococcus aureus, focusing in particular on urinary tract infections. Included are descriptions of the bacteria, risk factors, treatment and avoidance and control.
Surgical site infections account for 15% of all the Hospital Acquired infections. Hospital based surveillance programs for control and prevention of SSI’s need to be developed. Pharmacologic treatment of infection depends upon the etiology, due to increase antimicrobial resistance antibiotics should be used logically.
Other surgical site infections are exceedingly grave and may involve body tissues found under the skin, the organs or the implanted substance. It is therefore without doubt that surgical site infections represent a considerable portion of infections associated with health care.
743). According to CMS, “a never event must be unambiguous, preventable, serious, and either adverse, indicate of a problem in the facility, or important for public credibility and accountability”; and the eight conditions CMS initially addressed are “catheter-associated urinary tract infections, vascular catheter-associated infections, and surgical site infections after coronary artery bypass grafting, certain orthopedic surgeries, and bariatric surgery” (as cited in Brown et al, 2009).
Any surgical procedure is done to prevent further damage to a person’s body and the least thing healthcare providers would want is to add any probable complication. Included in the most common complications that occur after surgery are surgical site infections, sepsis, cardiovascular complications, and respiratory complications, including postoperative pneumonia and thromboembolic complications.
The paper tells that the symptoms of this infection can be identified after 24 to 72 hours of admission of a patient to the hospital. According to an early research, about 5 percent of the hospitalized patients get infected with nosocomial infection. It is because of the use of invasive procedures that this percentage of infected patients has increased to 8 percent.
On one hand one is away from home and family and on the other hand hospitals tend to give most people the jitters. Hence it is not surprising that once admitted into the hospital patients feel depressed and lonely. It is the duty of the hospital staff to make sure that patients stay mentally strong and happy.
rubs/ABHRs) to effect such practices in clinics and hospitals; professional health care workers are said to be the common starting point of nosocomial infections that abound within the actual health care situation because most of them do not conform with proper sanitation,
22). In other words, predicting the success of a new product was an intricate process as it required manual entry of data linked with previous monthly preparations into a computer for analysis. This took a lot of time. This meant that Meditech failed to store
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