Nosocmial Infection Related to Having Surgery In A Hospital - Research Paper Example

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ABSTRACT Even after provision of care to patients there is annual rise in the rate of Nosocomial Infections. These infections result in substantial morbidity, mortality and increase in cost and are common among nursing home patients. The susceptibility to infection is increased by invasive methods of treatment, deteriorating immune system, functional disability, chemotherapy or old age…
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Nosocmial Infection Related to Having Surgery In A Hospital
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Download file to see previous pages This is based on the route, duration and time of administration of the antibiotic after susceptibility test and clinical responses. NOSOCOMIAL OR HOSPITAL ACQUIRED INFECTIONS Care to patients is provided in wide range of facilities ranging from highly equipped clinics to advanced public universities. Despite progress and advancement in hospital care, infections continue to prevail in hospitalized patients and even in hospital staff. Decreased immunity among the patients, variety of invasive techniques creates a kind potential route for the infections to incubate and grow in the ideal atmosphere. Poor controls for the spread of infection can also be the key factor for the stretch of infections among crowded hospital populations. Nosocomial or Hospital acquired infections can be defined as: Nosocomial or hospital acquired infections are defined as the infections acquired by patients during their stay at the hospital, who are admitted for a reason other than that infection and the infection causing agent was not present or incubating at the time of admission. This also includes those infections occurring in staff members or patients who are recently discharged from the hospitals. (Pittet ,2011) EPIDIMILOGY Nosocomial infections occur in both developed and third world countries and it is the major cause of death among hospital patients. A survey conducted by WHO in 55 hospitals of 14 countries including Europe, Eastern Mediterranean, South East Asia and Western pacific. The result shows an average of 8.7% patients suffer from Hospital Acquired Infections every year. The burden of HAI is already substantial in developing countries where Nosocomial infections hit every 5 to 155 patients in regular wards and 50% patients in ICU (Vincent, Rello , Marshall, Silva, Anzueto, Martin,2009). The magnitude of the problem remains ignored or unknown because diagnosis is complex and suirvillience activities requires expertise and resources to guide interventions.(Allegranzi& pittet,2008) PATHOPHYSIOLOGY: Nosocomial infections can be acquired from both exogenous and endogenous sources. Endogenous sources are part of patient’s body or body sites, such as infections growing or incubating inside the body. Exogenous sources are those outside from the body. Examples include visitors, medical personnel, equipment and healthcare environment. HAI’s may be caused by patient’s own flora, the organisms harmlessly entangled with patients own body such as skin (S.Aureus) or intestine (E. coli). The infections targeting ICU patients or patients with weak immune system are those which are the victims of environment filled with the micro-organisms. These organisms usually cause lung infections. Infections may be transferred from one to another person such as Antibiotic resistant micro-organisms are likely to come from the person already infected or colonized from the organism, via the hands of health care worker or through the environment where the patient is being cared for. C.difficile is the causative agent for diarrhea and can be carried in the intestine of the patient or can be acquired from other patient already infected because C. Difficile produces spores which make it easier for their spread and also make it resistant to unfavorable conditions. The agents causing HAI are mostly viruses, bacteria’ ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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