Various health programs are being implemented in the community level and these programs are meant to address major health issues.The application of advanced practice in community health nursing provides a strong basis for the establishment of programs …
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This paper shall analyze the human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccination program being implemented in Singapore in response to the increase of cervical cancer cases. The proposed response to the selected health issue shall then be considered. Finally a proposed action plan to establish the current response to the selected issue close to the ideal best practice response shall be presented. Body Cervical cancer is considered the seventh most popular form of cancer among women in Singapore (National Registry of Diseases, 2008). All of these cases of cervical cancer have been attributed to the Human Papilloma Virus; this virus has also been associated with the development of tumour growths in the vulva, vagina, anus, and the penis. It has also been associated to genital warts (Obstetrical & Gynaecological Society of Singapore, 2011). There are two types of HPV vaccines being used in Singapore, namely, the Gardasil and the Cervarix. Gardasil is used for females aged 9 to 26 years and Cervarix is used for females aged 10 to 25 years (Obstetrical & Gynaecological Society of Singapore, 2011). With these numbers, the importance of setting up a health program to reduce these cases has been considered vital for the global community, and certainly for Singapore. Human Papilloma Virus Vaccination in Singapore Merck was the first who was able to gain approval from the US Food and Drug Administration in the distribution of Gardasil, its first HPV vaccine (Parry, 2007). Since then, it has been approved in other countries and is being distributed worldwide. GlaxoSmith followed Merck’s success by finally gaining approval for its HPV vaccine known as Cervarix. In the meantime, the World Health Organization has been active in its information dissemination about this vaccine and in establishing guidelines for the distribution and use of this vaccine. It has been tested in various parts of the globe, and so far, consistent results have been seen (Parry, 2007). The WHO has also provided all countries seeking to utilize this vaccine with the guidance and technical notes in introducing these vaccines. The WHO acknowledges the importance of educating the governments and health professionals about the vaccine and the virus itself, its risks, and the possible preventive measures which they can apply in order to reduce its impact (Parry, 2007). The benefits of this vaccine have been apparent in relation to HPV 16/18 related pre-cancer lesions; their long-term benefits however have yet to be established. Nevertheless, both vaccines have proven to be generally safe and tolerated without any serious negative events observed (Obstetrical & Gynaecological Society of Singapore, 2011). Minor side-effects observed include pain, swelling, redness at the site of injection. In injections, these are common side-effects which are usually expected and pose no alarming risks and implications. In Singapore, the Ministry of Health is recommending HPV vaccination among females aged 9 and 26 years (Obstetrical & Gynaecological Society of Singapore, 2011). Ideally, it must be given to females who have never had sexual intercourse because it is a vaccine which does not provide protection against already existing HPV infections (Obstetrical & Gynaecological Society of Singapore, 2011). Sexually active women can also be vaccinated, but they must first undergo Papanicolaou Smear tests in order to rule out the presence of the virus or any other neoplastic growths. The efficacy of the HPV vaccine is also expected to be lower among sexually active
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