Leukemia Name: University: Abstract In the United States of America, roughly 1,500 individuals die of cancer every day. Globally, over eight million new cases are diagnosed annually. In developed countries like the US, one out of three people will suffer from cancer in his/her lifetime…
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Introduction The word leukemia is derived from the Greek words leukos and aima, which stand for ‘white blood.’ Leukemia is a form of blood and bone marrow cancer and it points to an abnormal production and multiplication of white blood cells (leukocytes) in a person’s body. Blood cells are produced in the bone marrow and they divide to form new body cells according to the requirements of the body (there is the dying of old cells and new cells have to replace them). In a person suffering from leukemia, the DNA of immature white blood cells somehow becomes damaged and they grow and divide chaotically. The old cells do not die and there is rapid division of body cells – more and more cells are produced in the body taking up more and more space and cancer problem arises. Simply put, the bad cells in the blood crowd out the good cells (Nordqvist, 2009). History of Leukemia Ancient Greeks discovered leukemia way back in the 4th or 5th century BC. However, John Hughes Benett officially diagnosed it in Edinburgh in the year 1845. In the 19th century, some physicians from Europe further realized that a number of of their patients were suffering from peculiarly high white blood cells levels. They termed this condition 'weisses blut', meaning “white blood”. In the year 1913, leukemia was categorized into four types namely acute lymphocytic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myelogenous leukemia (Erythroleukemia) and chronic myelogenous leukemia. Further, in the year 1970, it was proven that there was cure for leukemia, and by 1980s and 1990s, roughly 70% of patients suffering from leukemia had been cured. This brought high hopes to all patients suffering from leukemia globally. For ages, people have been fighting with cancer, the only difference being that they were not aware of the details of what they were battling (Johnson, 2011). Treatment options Just like the information concerning leukemia has changed with time, the treatment options available for the patients have also changed. The earliest treatment option administered to leukemia patients was arsenic. Generally known in the West as a poison, arsenic has been used to treat leukemia and such conditions as psoriasis and syphilis in traditional Chinese medicine for almost two thousand years. It has been proven to have a considerable anti-cancer effect for leukemia although the mechanism for this effect has remained unknown till recently when scientists in China found out that it targets proteins which contribute to cancer cells’ growth (Edwards, 2010). Healthandnutritiontips.net (2011) records that arsenic is still used in the treatment of some types of leukemia and that it has proved very successful. In the early 20th century, radiation therapy replaced arsenic (Johnson, 2011). Scientists found out that exposure to radiation decreases the cancerous tumors on patients in size. Radiation is still a very common and a very effective treatment option for leukemia, as well as other cancer types. However, it has several side effects that a patient needs to take into consideration (Healthandnutritiontips.net, 2011). Other modern/recent treatment options for leukemia include biological therapy or immunotherapy, chemotherapy surgery and bone marrow transplants. Biological therapy/immunotherapy has to do with treatment
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(Nursing Research Paper - Leukemia Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words)
“Nursing Research Paper - Leukemia Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/nursing/1440564-leukemia.
Illustration is possible by the core definition of nursing, “Nursing is the protection, promotion, and optimization of health and abilities, prevention of illness and injury… and advocacy in the care of individuals, families, communities, and populations” (Timby, pp.
How does the disease develop? Blood cells generally form from the cells that are contained in the bone marrow, which is a soft material inside the bones. These cells are known as the stem cells. Different stem cells modify into various types of blood cells.
Quantitative Critique: Effects on Sexual Risk Behavior and STD Rate of Brief HIV/STD Prevention Interventions for African American Women in Primary Care Settings Author Qualifications and Preparation Loretta Sweet Jemmott, John B. Jemmott III, and Ann O’Leary are the authors of the study entitled “Effects on Sexual Risk Behavior and STD Rate of Brief HIV/STD Prevention Interventions for African American Women in Primary Care Settings.” L.S.
41). Culture refers to a set of beliefs, values, habits, customs and traditions that are held by a given group of people and transferred from one generation to another. In the early 1950s, there was no existence of cultural knowledge to guide decisions in nursing and other actions to clearly understand behaviors in cultures.
A number of articles will also be used. The significance of this question will also be addressed in the course of this study. A summary will then be provided of the types of studies retrieved in addition to an algorithm of the research. Key findings will be highlighted, citing studies that have contributed most to the subject matter.
They interfere with normal hematopoiesis and immunity in the bone marrow and lymphoid tissue and after immigration in to the peripheral blood, they infiltrate other tissues. Classification of Leukemias Leukemias are classified based on the cell types involved (lymphocytic or myeloid) and on the natural history of the disease (acute or chronic).
Types of cancer There are basically 5 types of cancers: carcinoma, sarcoma, lymphomas and leukemias, germ cell tumor and blastoma. Carcinomas are cancers that are derived from the epithelial cells. Cancers of the breast, lung, prostate, colon and pancreas fall into this category.
In this case, the interviewee was a widowed 76 year old female patient with a 5’9” height and 300lbs of weight. As a result, she is overweight and cannot walk. Therefore, her legs are wrapped in ice bandage. She is mentally stable and very alert. This is seen in the way she paid attention to all the questions that were asked.
There are many underlying factors that have been identified in the causation of leukemia. These include radiations, chemotherapy, certain genetic disorders as well as the human T-cell leukemia virus-1. The pathological condition affects the males more commonly
of young white cells (blasts) which compromises the production of red cells which transports oxygen and nutrients, neutrophils which fight bacterial infections, and lymphocytes which fight both bacterial and viral infections and platelets which helps form clots to stop
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