Coronary Artery Disease - Pathophysiology and Management Name: University: Course: Tutor: Date: Abstract Coronary heart disease is a serious disease which may lead to death if not well managed. This paper is going to focus on pathophysiology of the disease, its clinical manifestations, medical management and nursing considerations…
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Plague is a component of fat, cholesterol and other substances of the blood. Plague is slowly built up over several years forming a condition known as atherosclerosis (Cohen & Hasselbring, 2007). After a long period of building up, plague hardens and narrows coronary artery leading to limits of flow of oxygenated blood to the heart. As the plague hardens, it eventually ruptures, causing a blood clot, a situation that can lead to blockage of blood flow through the coronary artery. If the flow of oxygenated blood is reduced or blocked, a heart attack occurs (Cohen & Hasselbring, 2007). The beginning of symptomatic CAD is normally about ten years in men, but CAD cases in women are more prevalent especially to women who have reached menopause. However, it is believed that CAD cases tend to cumulate in families (Cohen & Hasselbring, 2007). Studies have indicated that history of CAD risks in families with CAD cases is common. Although some people can argue that CAD is a hereditary disease, some factors like other health complications such as hypertension, high blood pressure and obesity facilitates risks of CAD. All these are widely associated with living styles. There are precautions that physicians give to patients suffering from CAD. Unfortunately, many people suffering from CAD fail to take these precautions seriously (Cohen & Hasselbring, 2007). For example, the habit of smoking has become so rampant with over twenty five percent of people with over eighteen years smoking cigarette. Smoking is said to multiply the effects of other CAD factors. It is estimated to cause twenty percent of CAD deaths. The theory of aetherorosclerosis states that the process symbolizes an effort to heal in response to endothelial injury (Cohen & Hasselbring, 2007). During this process, the first step involves development of fatty streaks. These streaks tend to form between endothelium and internal elastic lamina. In the recent past, inflammation is becoming a component of atherosclerosis genesis and plague instability. Patients with CAD are at danger of risk factors known as metabolic syndrome (Cohen & Hasselbring, 2007). CAD is known for its persistent burden to many people all over the world. However, its risks can be managed if efficacy of lipid- lowering models is followed. The first lipid- lowering therapy focuses on therapeutic lifestyle changes (Cohen & Hasselbring, 2007). This includes dietary changes, constant physical activities, avoiding risky practices like smoking and alcohol drinking, and undertaking recommended wait lose. However, there are pharmacologic agents that help adjust lipid levels although, therapeutic lifestyle is preferred to them (Cohen & Hasselbring, 2007). Patients with CAD are carefully examined. The examination includes description of the pain, its location and severity (Cohen & Hasselbring, 2007). Diagnosis of CAD involves detailed patients history and electrocardiogram. After the initial diagnosis, laboratory tests follow. Angina is the commonest symptom although some patients remain asymptomatic. Some of the notable symptoms include chest pain, sweating, and yellowish tumors at either lower or upper lids. One of the major causes of CAD is stress (Cohen & Hasselbring, 2007). In this regard, nursing care plan involves helping the patient to realize the cause of the disease and how best they can refrain from it. Since stress is prevalence to most CAD patients, one of
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Plagues are deposits of cholesterol over the wall of the blood vessels. They are formed due to gradual deposition over a period of time (Alpert et al, 2000). Sometimes, plaques rupture and can result in blood clots within blood vessels. These clots block the blood vessel and result in sudden decrease of blood supply to the myocardium.
An imbalance in this predisposes the heart muscle to ischemia, which means reduced blood flow. The tissue death as a result of ischemia occurs because of two reasons, reduced oxygen supply and the decreased delivery of nutrients, both of which are brought in by the flow of blood though the heart muscle.
Most men acquire this disease in their 40s. Women generally acquire this disease later than in 40s. There can be many reasons for an individual to acquire the coronary artery disease. It may be gained because of bad genes. People who have a family history of heart attacks are more susceptible to the disease than others.
Mostly, CVD is caused by the accumulation of extra plaque on the outer layer of a large blood—this is also referred to as ‘atherosclerosis’. This excess plaque disrupts the flow of blood to the brain or to the heart which causes heart attacks (Eaker et al., 1993).
Dementia is one of the most severe progressive irreversible impairment in the intellect that progresses with age and illustrates a serious concern in public health (Yamasaki, et al, 2012). Anderson (2011) noted that economically, dementia is identified as the major public health problem in the United States (US).
Coronary artery disease arises due to the buildup of plaques in the coronary arteries that lead to blockages. This is a state known as atherosclerosis (Brubaker, 2001). The arteries, which start out as elastic and smooth, become rigid and narrow. This restricts blood circulation to the heart (Brubaker, 2001).
Secondly, it outlines the compatibility of the Helen Fuld School of Nursing conceptual framework with the values of the coronary artery bypass surgery nursing. Thirdly, it explores the role of the nurse in detail during different phases of the surgery. Next, it reports the findings of an evidence-based study into the problem.
The National Health Service in England (2009) noted that CHD is the leading killer in the UK with mortality ratio of 1:4 in men and 1:6 in women and about 300,000 individuals suffers from heart attack annually.
The idea of this research emerged from the author’s interest and fascination in how the social determinants of the disease in Merced County compared to California and the US. This research aims to evaluate and present a comparison of health outcomes related to the problem and the ongoing interventions or programs addressing this health condition in Merced County.
10 Pages(2500 words)Research Paper
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