Running head: EFFECT OF SENSORY PERCEPTUAL INFORMATION ON ANXIETY LEVELS The Effect of Sensory-Perceptual Information on Anxiety Level of Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery Abstract Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a common procedure that restores normal blood flow to the heart, alleviating the painful symptoms of heart disease, such as angina…
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This project paper outlines the problem, provides a comprehensive literature review and describes the planned interventions that are designed to provide CABG patients with the sensory-perceptual information they need in order to reduce their level of anxiety and increase coping skills. The project will be carried out within a hospital setting, utilizing all patients undergoing CABG who are referred by the cardiac catheterization laboratory. Each intervention is described in detail. Interventions will include a 12-minute video presentation, an informational brochure and informational sessions with the main researcher. At the individual information session, the researcher will adapt the information presented to fit with the cultural background, linguistic preference and health beliefs of the CABG patient. Table of Contents Chapter 1 Background and need for the project 4 Purpose of the project 7 Significance of the project 7 Theoretical Framework 8 Chapter 2 Search strategy 9 Review of literature 9 Studies investigating the association between anxiety/depression and CABG 9 Studies providing systematic literature reviews 12 Studies on educational intervention and other factors 13 Summary and discussion 15 Chapter 3 Implementation procedures 16 Chapter 4 The Project Teaching Plan 18 Objectives 21 Materials 22 Vocabulary 22 Motivation 23 Chapter 5 Summary 23 Conclusions 23 Implications for nursing 24 Recommendation for further study 24 Appendix 25 References 28 Chapter I Background and need for the project Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery is a procedure that uses a healthy blood vessel to create a bypass, an arterial bridge, that allows blood to be routed around a blocked or diseased artery ("Coronary bypass," 2010). Typically the vessel used is taken from the patient's leg, although vessels from an arm, chest or the abdomen have also been used ("Coronary bypass," 2010). CABG restores normal blood flow to the heart, which produces a variety of beneficial effects, such as decreasing the risk for a heart attack. Furthermore, in many cases, the surgery reduces the symptoms being suffered by the patient, such as chest pain and shortness of breath. The principal goals of CABG are to alleviate the symptoms of angina, decrease heart attack risk and prolong and improve the quality of life (McKenzie, Simpson and Stewart, 2010). CABG is a procedure that is widely performed in all developed countries. The American Heart Association reported in 2005 that the annual procedure rate in the US was over 515,000 (Gallagher and McKinley, 2009). The procedure has a relatively low mortality rate and been proven to effectively alleviate the symptoms of angina (Gallagher and McKinley, 2009). Nevertheless, psychological problems, such as the development of anxiety and depression, have been widely reported in connection with patients who have undergone CABG surgery; and, it has been found that these psychological problems are often long-term, as research reports that anxiety and depression are evident in roughly one-fifth of CABG patients a year following the surgery (McKenzie, Simpson and Stewart, 2010). Problems with psychological adjustment can lead to adverse events. These adverse coronary events may include further hospitalization and even an increased incidence of mortality (McKenzie, Simpso
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CHD is caused by the accumulation of plaque, a substance that constitutes of calcium, cholesterol, fat and other blood substances (Nih.gov, 2010). Diabetes, high blood pressure, smoking, old age (over 55 years for women and over 45 years for men), elevated cholesterol, among others can accelerate the accumulation of plaque.
A person undergoing any surgery faces stress and anxiety and coronary artery bypass surgery being a major surgery increase the risk. Even though, coronary bypass surgery is a commonly performed surgical procedure, it is known to be a stressful event for patients.
Pain is a feeling which is extremely upsetting and very personal, and cannot be shared with others, however pain is an important sign that something is wrong physiologically (Bonica 1987; Melzack 1999).
Pain is a complex sensation because it requires not only consideration of the physical pain but also the emotional and mental impact on the patient.
With rapid globalization, in many parts of the world, this is increasingly becoming the typical picture, and this disease is the most prevalent serious disease in elderly individuals of the developed Western nations. Therefore, in this context, it would be worthwhile to examine how this disease develops and how it manifests itself.
It results from coronary atherosclerosis, which is directly associated with several well defined risk factors, including smoking, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia, lack of exercise, and familial predisposition.
Consent as defined by the Oxford English Dictionary is to "Express willingness, give permission, agree." (Concise Oxford Dictionary pg 244). It can be verbal or nonverbal but in a court of law written/signed consent is usually allowed as valid evidence. It is well recognized that nurses should obtain the consent of a patient prior to nursing care procedures (Calder 1989, Hewetson 1994, United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting [UKCC] 2000).
The optic nerves transmit visual signals from the right side of the visual field to the lateral geniculate body in the left hemisphere of the brain, while signals from the left visual field are transmitted to the right hemisphere (p.118). Inter-hemispheric interaction is a vital mechanism for the transfer of sensory information required for perceptual processing, and such interaction generally involves the corpus callosum (Banich, 1998p.128).
One of the methods of screening is blood pressure, the main purpose of this method is to assist in the detection of risk factors in the early stages before they develop to be a cardiovascular disease (Hall & Lorenc, 2010). This is among the most
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