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Female Genital Mutilation - Literature review Example

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Table of Contents
Abstract 2
1 Introduction 3
1.1 Background study 3
Definition 3
Prevalence of FGM 5
1.2 Rationale 7
1.3 Aims and objectives 8
2 Female Genital Mutilation and Types 9
3 Socio-cultural background of FGM 13
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Female Genital Mutilation

Download file to see previous pages... 5 Provisions for legal and human rights abuse associated with FGM 25
6 Midwives and FGM 28
7 Research methodology 30
1.1 Methodology 30
Research Paradigm 33
1.2 Methods 34
Search criteria 35
Study Selection 36
Search Methodology 38
Limitations to the study 38
8 Conclusion 39
9 Recommendations 41
References 42


The research paper addresses the reasons why it is essential for midwives to understand the social background, forms, and health issues associated with Female Genital Mutilation (FGM).
Aim: The study aims to emphasise the importance of the role of midwives that deal with women have undergone FMG.
Method: The study is based on literature research of articles located in Embase, CINAHL, Academic Search Premier, Medline, Cochrane, EBSCO Database, Scisearch, OVID Medline, PubMed, and Amed, related to Female Genital Mutilation (FGM). Committee papers related to social sciences, ethics and psychology and related to the theme, were located through PsychINFO and ASSIA.
Results: A review of the available literature revealed that women who have undergone FMG often experience physical and psychological damages, which makes taking care of such patients, a complex and difficult process. Appropriate attitude of midwives, nurses and all involved health professionals is important while dealing with such patients, along sensitivity towards the patient and in-depth knowledge of the causes and possible outcomes of FGM. It is also important to provide education to the circumcised women and the communities that perform this practice in order to stop or decrease FMG, through various consultations and social meetings. Conclusions: it is necessary to have a better understanding of FGM in order to grasp the clinical implications, which would help midwives improve the care provided, while helping to abolish the harmful practice. Keywords: FMG, genital, clitoris, mutilation, excision, clitoris, midwives. 1 Introduction 1.1 Background study Definition Female genital mutilation (also known as FGM), is an umbrella term that encompasses a large number of practices involving complete removal or modification of the female genitalia for reasons that are completely non-therapeutic in nature. FGM, also known as female circumcision, is however more extensive and dangerous than male circumcision. The extent of cutting in FMG being more extensive, it often severely injures a woman’s reproductive and sexual functions while also affecting the ability to pass urine. It is for this reason WHO refers to this form of circumcision as female genital mutilation, while in some cases the term female genital cutting is used, to avoid hurting sentiments and resistance to change. The World Health Organization defined FGM as, “all procedures involving partial or total removal of the external female genitalia or other injury to the female genital organs whether for cultural or other non-therapeutic purposes” (1997, p.3). Infibulation, a form of FGM, where there occurs removal of clitoris, labia minora, and two-thirds of the anterior region or the entire medial regions of the labia majora is the severest type of FGM (WHO, 1997, p. 5). Here, after removal of the aforementioned parts, rough surfaces are formed on labia majora, which are then stitched together in order to close most of the introitus of vagina while partly sealing the urethra (ibid). The two most common forms of mutilation are excision and clitorecdectomy, and all forms of FMG are mutilating in nature. According to World Health Organisation (WHO) there are four categories of FGM: “Type I: Clitoridectomy: partial or total removal of the clitoris (a small, sensitive and erectile part of the female genitals) and, in very rare cases, only the prepuce (the fold of skin surrounding the clitoris). Type II: ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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