Insertion of central venous catheters has become commonplace in the peri-operative and intensive care setting.Over the years,they have played a reliable role in patient care for haemodynamic management,patent intravenous access in patients suffering from chronic illnesses and administration of parenteral nutrition…
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Insertion of central venous catheters (CVCs) has become commonplace in the peri-operative and intensive care setting. Over the years, they have played a reliable role in patient care for haemodynamic management, patent intravenous access in patients suffering from chronic illnesses and administration of parenteral nutrition and other chemotherapeutic agents. The three sites that are utilized for central venous catheter insertion are internal jugular, subclavian and femoral. Although, like any other medical intervention, these catheters have their own share of complications, it is the risk of infection, which has the most serious clinical and economic repercussions for the patient, physician and health care facility with high morbidity and mortality.One survey determined that central lines are associated with more than 40% of blood stream infections in England. Thus, it is imperative that strict infection control measures are enforced during the care of CVCs. Risk of infection in peri-operative setting would depend upon whether the CVC is kept in situ for a long time or it is removed post surgery. Otherwise, rest of the discussion about CRBSI is applicable to ICU as well as peri-operative setting. Definition and diagnosis of CRBSI Catheter related blood stream infection (CRBSI) is a type of hospital acquired infection which is clinically defined as fungemia or bacteremia in a patient with CVC in situ, as shown by positive blood culture from a peripheral vein, along with clinical signs of infection, but no other apparent source for positive blood culture. ...
, or, blood sample from a peripheral vein and sample drawn from the catheter hub (IDSA 2012)) Risk of CRBSI in perioperative and ICU setting Many factors have been investigated for the role that they are likely to play in the development of these infections. The factors which have been most commonly scrutinized for their role in causation of CRBSI are: Selection of the type of catheter: single lumen catheters have a lower incidence of CRBSI than multiple lumen, antimicrobial impregnated catheters preferred in centres with high rates of CRBSI or prolonged requirement of CVC (reference no.23), role of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) the site of CVC insertion: Subclavian most preferred, femoral least preferred hand hygiene: technique should be accurately followed aseptic precautions and skin preparation followed during insertion: use of gloves and barrier precautions, skin preparation with chlorhexidine in alcoholic solution nature and material of the dressing applied over the insertion site antibiotic ointment systemic antibiotic prophylaxis antimicrobial flush and lock solutions anticoagulant flush replacement of CVCs Replacement of IV administration sets handling of the CVC port by nursing and other health care staff USG guidance at the time of insertion Various studies and clinical trials support or contradict these factors. Also, there are evidence based practices and interventions based on these related factors and derived from the existing knowledge about infection control, which, when diligently followed in ICUs and other health care settings, have demonstrated a decrease in the rate of development of CRBSI (National Institute for Clinical Excellence 2003, Healthcare Infection Control Practices Advisory Committee 2011). Pathogenesis of Catheter
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(Infection Control and Prevention Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words)
“Infection Control and Prevention Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/nursing/1396602-infection-control-and-prevention.
These infections cause discomfort to the patient and hinder the recovery process and in severe cases may even cause death.As the cost of treatment also increases,the hospital acquired infections are actually a burden on the government as well.The extended stay of the patient results in the loss of work thereby depleting his/her financial resources.
In fact medical science in general and the nursing profession in particular have given much attention in recent years to this oft neglected area of clinical practice. This paper will discuss not only the nature and causes of infections, but also the efforts for infection prevention and control with special reference to defence healthcare.
The National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) outlines guidelines related to the national specifications of cleanliness in NHS, which is a framework for measuring and setting performance results in all dental care and primary medical premises (NHS, 2010). This research involved qualitative analysis of studies related to infection prevention and control in healthcare across Britain.
The issue that has being chosen for quality improvement is infection control and prevention within a hospital and what measures a hospital’s research department takes in order to find treatments of the infections that spread and how they go about their way to quarantine a hospital whenever an issue of infection control comes up (WHO, 2013). It is prudent for any successful infection control program to include all kinds of precautionary measures.
The nurses are in a unique position to practice strict followership of infection control techniques in the hospital setting since it is through them the major portions of care takes place. They are in constant touch and communication with the patients, and they are the final common pathway for delivery of evidence-based care.
However, the more imminent threat lies in the fact that these two organisms are becoming increasingly difficult to treat with available medication which has left hospitals with prevention as their main cure for reducing hospital acquired infections. Hospital acquired infections can result from a number of factors, however, MRSA and Clostridium difficile have been cited as the major causes in most cases and this has prompted the author to investigate the reasons behind the rise of MRSA and Clostridium difficile as the major causes of hospital acquired infections.
It also provides a personal opinion on whether these laws or rules have fostered or challenged discriminatory practices, and if the latter is true, whether these challenges have led to progress in that area.
Clearly laws and
The arrow shows the median incubation period from the exposure time. Critical analysis of such a situation indicates that the cause of illness was linked to something consumed earlier as the first symptoms were noticed before lunchtime. The median incubation period is some hours after lunch meaning it had got into the system earlier.
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study
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