n the medical world, pain has consistently been categorized into two encompassing variations: firstly, the pain patients experience as a result of malignant cancers; and secondly, chronic pain associated with non-malignant cancers, and other illnesses …
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The prescription of opioids to assist the patients with malignant cancers has proven to be beneficial, but the increasing misuse and abuse of these medications by patients suffering from non-chronic pain has served to overshadow the benefits of opioids, despite the wide variety of medications available to treat non-cancer associated pain (Potter et al, 2001). While theoretically, the constant prescription of opioids is necessary and effective only in the treatment of malignant cancer-related, significantly more serious pain (Becker et al, 2011), health practitioners seem to have favored the prescription of these drugs in cases of all chronic pain (Potter et al, 2011). The supposition is therefore that this more widespread prescription has led to NUPM and PUPD. But it is not only the increase in prescription of opioids that can explain the ballooning of the incidence of NUPM. It seems that the failure of health professionals to monitor their patients’ use of drugs may also be a significant factor arguing for restraint, and even the cessation of the practice of widely prescribing opioids (Liebschutz et al, 2010). What are the conditions, consequently, that should accompany the distribution if opioids to patients? Is the only available, effective option to ban these medications outright, or would it be possible to formulate and implement policies that would effectively prevent abuse and misuse of these narcotics? A. Trends in the prescription of narcotics The findings of studies suggested that the varied barriers to the use of opioids must be addressed before any mandates or guidelines regulating the prescription of opioids can be implemented. Primary caregivers are more likely to be frustrated by the barriers, than by conforming to sets of guidelines. Therefore the prescription of opioids for the treatment of chronic pain in older patients is widespread. Spitz et al. (2011) found that the majority of the participants in their quantitative study were prescribing opioids to older patients, but only as a second or subsequent line of treatment. This initial reluctance may be due to the possibility of causing harm; the subjective nature of pain; deficient education regarding the effectiveness and consequences of using opioids; and the stigma attached to opioid use. Family members and the patients themselves were reluctant to try opioid treatment due to concerns regarding possible opioid abuse or misuse. In the findings of other studies, it was clear that significant attention had been given to the probability of substance abuse in patients prescribed opioids on a regular and ongoing basis. The clinical significance of the association between opioid use and common mental disorders is often overlooked. The evident lacunae resulting from the overemphasis on substance abuse, and the underemphasized incidence of mental disorders must be addressed. The prevalence of high-risk patients, in the prescription of opioid treatments, is a vital consideration. Patients on opioid treatment were found to be two to three times more likely to seek mental health assistance by Sullivan et al. (2006) despite their not reporting a higher requirement for substance abuse treatment. In this cross-sectional study, it was found that continued use of opioids in participants, over the period 1988-2001, posed an increased risk for common mental disorders. This study illustrates the link between common mental disorders, as well as substance abuse, with the continuous use of prescribed opioids based on evidence from a large prospective population based data study. Furthermore, a lack of confidence among physicians relating to the prescription of narcotics can be discerned. Nonetheless, urine toxicology screening was rarely carried out either
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Abuse of prescription of narcotics in primary care and its prevention" Theme – 1: Lack of education of primary care providers about pain management. Unique Identifier: Upshur 1 Authors: Upshur, C. C., Luckman, R. S., Savageau, J. A. Title: Primary Care Providers Concerns about Management of Chronic Pain in Community Clinic Populations.
Abuse of Prescription of Narcotics in Primary Care and Its Prevention Introduction In the United States, about 50 million individuals have been estimated to suffer from chronic pain which attributes to almost $70 billion of over-all expenses. Through the years, cancer patients have gradually been reduced of their pain affliction by the introduction of many medications addressing such needs; however, non-malignant chronic pain has not been equally fortunate (Schneider, 1998).
Based on this research the predominant attitude of curing a disease when it strikes instead of preventing it has been addressed by the Affordable Care Act (ACA). A paradigm shift needs to happen if positive health outcomes are to be achieved. The ACA covers a wide spectrum of medical services to educate people on the prevention of disease and the maintenance of good health.
The problem is even more pronounced in the United Kingdom (UK). One of the reasons for such increasing expenditure is over-prescribing. Dukes, Mildred and Swartz argued that in many countries, over-prescribing has been used as a security blanket either against litigation, or as a stance in practicing defensive medicine.
The researcher claims that as a consequence of misuse there is a hesitancy in its optimum use in primary care, and when used the is inadequacy in the screening methods, choice of suitable patients, and poor monitoring subsequently, all of which only enhance the risk for potential misuse of opioids from prescriptions of opioids.
To this, the role of information technology (IT) is worth mentioning that is greatly depended upon. Although IT may not be the only technological advancement responsible for the improvement in lives and activities, yet it has a significant role to play since changes in lives would not have been possible without the availability of new information (Castells, 1999, p.2).
In this regard, increase in the population of people whose age is 65 and beyond is ascribed mainly to these developments (Nerenberg 2008). As such, the reality of growing old, a part of the cycle of life, has become an actuality in the recent time (Megret 2010).
?…………………………….. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my lecturer___________ who gave me the golden opportunity to undertake this project on the topic alcohol misuse in armed forces in the UK, the US, and Canada, which also helped me in doing a lot of Research and made me to acquire a lot of knowledge on quite many new issues about the topic.
Managers and supervisors at companies across America are today left with the reality that their facilities are constant under threat of an act of violence, yet all too few have a proper plan to prevent or minimize the effect of such occurrences. Perhaps because they feel that workplace violence would never happen under their watch, or perhaps because of a simple lack of knowledge that such violence can and does happen at facilities just like theirs, the need for a well thought and organized plan must be communicated (Taylor, 2010, p.
The brand names of the pills containing such combination are Roxicet and Tylox. Such pills are available under different combinations like 25 mg oxycodone hydrochloride and 325 mg acetaminophen; 5 mg oxycodone hydrochloride and 325 mg acetaminophen; 7.5 mg oxycodone hydrochloride and 500 mg acetaminophen; 10 mg oxycodone hydrochloride and 650 mg acetaminophen.
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