David Kolb’s learning styles model was first published in 1984 and introduced terms such as experiential learning theory (ELT) and learning styles inventory (LSI). Kolb’s work reports experiential learning reported earlier including the work of Jung, Piaget and Rogers. …
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Life Learning Using Kolb Cycle about Public Personal Speaking Experience
David Kolb’s learning styles model was first published in 1984 and introduced terms such as experiential learning theory (ELT) and learning styles inventory (LSI). Kolb’s work entitled “Experiential Learning: Experience As The Source Of Learning And Development” reports experiential learning reported earlier including the work of Jung, Piaget and Rogers. The learning theory posited by Kolb is one that states there are four specific learning styles and these are framed in a four-stage cycle of learning. The four-stage cycle is stated by Kolb to include:
(1) Concrete Experience (CE);
(2) Reflective Observation (RO);
(3) Abstract Conceptualization (AC); and
(4) Active Experimentation (AE). (Business Balls, 2011)
The four learning styles stated by Kolb include those as follows:
(1) Diverging (CE/RO);
(2) Assimilating (AC/RO);
(3) Converging (AC/AE); and
(4) Accommodating (CE/AE) (Business Balls, 2011)
The following illustration is a diagram that shows the learning styles and learning types as posited in the work of David Kolb.
Figure 1 Source: Business Balls (2011) The preferred learning style of the individual varies from one person to the other and the factors that influence the preference of learning style are many. The developmental stages identified by Kolb in learning include those as follows: (1) Acquisition – from birth to adolescence and include the development of the individuals most basic of abilities and the individual’s cognition; (2) Specialization – early work and individual experiences in adulthood when specialized learning style of the individual is influenced by social, educational, and organizational socialization; and (3) Integration – mid-career into later life of the individual when the individual expresses the non-dominant learning style in their work life and in their personal life. (Business Balls, 2011) Kolb held that the learning style is the result of two pairs of variables. These are conceived as lines of axis in which each has conflict at either end as follows: Concrete Experience – CE (feeling) -----V-----Abstract Conceptualization – AC (thinking) Active Experimentation – AE (doing)-----V-----Reflective Observation (watching) A typical presentation of the two continuums of Kolb is stated to be that the Processing Continuum or the east-west axis is how the individual approaches a task and the north-south axis or the Perception Continuum is the individual’s emotional response and how they think about or feel about the task. The learning styles are the two lines of axis combined and these are formed between what Kolb states are “dialectically related modes of grasping experience (doing or watching) and transforming experience (thinking or feeing). The following illustration labeled Figure 2 in this study shows the conception of these two axis. Figure 2 Source: Business Balls (2011) Concrete experience is knowledge that is gained through practical experience while reflective observation has its focus on what the meaning of the experience is to the individual. The work of Wirth and Perkins (nd) report that there have been “calls for new kinds of learning from many different parts of society.” Student surveys are reported to indicate “that courses are not interesting, that students fail to recognize the value of what they are learning, and that many faculty rely too heavily on lectures for transmitting information.” (Wirth and Perkins, nd) It is reported that Fink (2003) reported that society and individual learners “now have different needs, both in terms of what people need to learn and how they can and should learn.” (Wirth and Perkins, nd) The work of Gardiner (1994) listed critical competencies for workers and citizens including the following competencies: (1) Personal responsibility; (2) Ability to act in principles, ethical fashion; (3) Skill in oral and written
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