The field of respiratory nursing, and healthcare in general entails challenges that extend far beyond the simple as-needed treatment of patients that might present themselves at clinics and hospitals complaining of respiratory distress. There are numerous external threats to public health…
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Initial investigations began in the Journal of the American Medical Association, their central website guides the user to salient articles available for purchase or library access. Specifically, this article will seek to answer whether health consequences of smoking over the past five decades is sufficient cause to trigger a public downturn in the prevalence of smoking. To this end, articles will be sought that describe long-term disease trends, as well as sociological shifts pertaining to public health, anti-smoking campaigns.
A very recent study by Pierce and associates is highly relevant to this objective. An investigation was performed encompassing 1965 to 2007 to determine the prevalence of heavy, habitual smoking, in the United States, by age and birth cohorts in this instance; with a focus on the State of California. This, and other studies confirm that The intensity of smoking, not only its prevalence, is associated with future health risks.
There were 139,176 total respondents within California and 1,662,353 for the remaining United States. Among individuals excluding Californians born between 1920-1929, the prevalence of moderate/high-intensity smoking, more than ten packs per day, was 40.5% in 1965. This high-level of tobacco consumption declined across successive birth cohorts, and it was noted that for the 1970-1979 birth cohort, the highest rate of moderate/high-intensity smoking was 9.7% in California and
18.3% in the remaining United States....
There were 139,176 total respondents within California and 1,662,353 for the remaining United States. Among individuals excluding Californians born between 1920-1929, the prevalence of moderate/high-intensity smoking, more than ten packs per day, was 40.5% in 1965. This high-level of tobacco consumption declined across successive birth cohorts, and it was noted that for the 1970-1979 birth cohort, the highest rate of moderate/high-intensity smoking was 9.7% in California and 18.3% in the remaining United States. There was a statistically relevant decrease in moderate/high-intensity smoking at older ages in all cohorts studied, but the decline was greater in California. According to this study, there has been considerable decrease in the prevalence of high-levels of tobacco consumption. The decrease is explicable both in terms of diminished onset of new smokers, and increase in prior smokers who succeed in breaking the nicotine addiction. Though more investigation is needed to clarify whether it is an awareness of the health-risks alone, either through personal experience or simple word-of-mouth, or whether public health campaigns should take credit for the decline. The British Medical Journal also proved to be a useful source; as a means to evaluate, on an international scale the effects of smoking, and various campaigns intended to lessen its toll on public health. A study was found in the BMJ database that described 50 years worth of smoking habits among male British doctors. The primary goal being a comparison of the hazards of cigarette smoking in British men who formed their habits at different time periods. In addition to determine the extent of any reduction in risks when cigarette smoking ceases at different ages. Essentially, the high
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