Name: Instructor: Task: Date: Part V Trace the emergence of the symphony from Sammartini and Stamitz through the works of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. What changes occurred in the genre? Focus in particular on form and instrumentation. Symphony shares a large history of growth through different artists and periods…
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A symphony is a method of music that scales large and in its performance at orchestra. Symphony is comparable to concept of the novel in literature. Symphony emerged from the baroque period as sinfonia. In the baroque period, sinfonia referred to brief instrumental pieces that preceded larger works. In certain contexts, it would achieve full identity as an independent piece. A prominent example concerns concert grosso. However, trio sonata, concerto and sinfonia were treated as synonyms. The Italian sinfonia had the structure of fast-slow-fast while the French overture had the structure of slow-fast-slow. These overtures entailed small orchestra, short duration and easy compositions. In the eighteenth century, symphony emerged as a form that entailed performance by several instruments and independent identity. This was dominant, especially, in Italy whereby there were artists such as Giovanni Sammartini. Other early composers of the same include artists such as Johann Stamitz and Bach. Symphony grew in prominence since the baroque period initiated a revolution whereby the popularity of secular music surged beyond gospel music. The concept of the Orchestra, as a musical form, expanded to constitute an average of twenty players. The pieces involved use of different musical families such as woodwinds, keyboard instruments and strings. Orchestral performance became a public rather than the royalties’ affair. The second half of the eighteenth century had Joseph Haydn compose 104 symphonies. They entailed experiments with forms such as six pieces. Mozart had 41 symphonies. It is vital to note that he had his first composition at eight years of age. Haydn provided the transition from the pre-classical age into mature classic symphony. His first fourteen compositions had the elements of the pre-classical period. Mozart and Haydn achieved a significant celebration as the classical symphony’s composers (Wright 162). Haydn and Mozart initiated the definition of current symphony. In the age of reason, classical symphony possessed a balance, intricate design and distinct symmetry. Examples of the same include rondo, minuet, sonata form and trio (Wright 165). The structure of the same was typical of four movements. They occurred in the pattern of fast, slow, moderately fast, and quite fast. The performance did not require the role of a conductor. The choirmaster, who would be the first violinist, performed the role of guiding the performance. The performances of Haydn and Mozart were usually short pieces that would take an average of thirty minutes. Ludwig van Beethoven played an essential role of expanding the concept of symphony (Wright 209). This expansion occurred in terms of density of sound, tempo, rhythm and dynamics. In addition, he initiated the use of additional instruments such as the piccolo, trombone and the contrabassoon (Wright 210). Describe the individual musical styles of Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. Support your characterizations with musical examples. It is essential to note that Haydn and Mozart belonged to a slightly earlier age of music growth. Beethoven later sprung as a fundamental artist of the eighteenth century. However, they all belong to the classical period of music growth. To begin with, the article explores the works of Joseph Haydn. Haydn, just as Mozart, sprung from the baroque age of music. He is part of the group that established a
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