Polyphony in the Middle Ages Introduction Dalahoyde notes that polyphony as music of the Middle Ages arose from the various techniques that were used to spice up play chant. Polyphony in its literal meaning is a musical type with two or more lines that are independent of each other…
Download file to see previous pages...
This form of progression gave the music resonance that is so fascinating. The first parallel organum was the Musical enchiriadis (Musical Handbook) which emerged in 9th century1. Occasionally, two voices in the music began in unison followed by vox organalis climbs to its hiatus, receding at the ends of phrases to the unison. This form was followed by the Ad organum facienddum2 . In 11th century, four other organums emerged. This include florid organum, melismatic organum, duplum organum and organum purum. Dalahoyde notes that the unmeasured melismatic dupum invoved the use of long tenure notes. Aquitanian organum of the 11th century which is linked to the French SW ‘Discant organum’ involved the use of two voices falling into a rhythmic style. This style of organum involved 6/8 or sometimes 8/9 fell, singing at the same pace for a passage. Dalahoyde reveals that in the 11th and 12th century, the octaves, fourth and fifth were perceived constant but not thirds. He notes that the standard closing sonority was 1-5-8 structure because it involved two perfect intervals3. Notre-Dome is also a style of early organum which came into being in 12th century. Its is derived from the Notre Dame Cathedral which was constructed in 1163. Notre Dame has two parts: organa and several clausulae, motets and Conductus. In organa, the melody involved the use of long notes with the organal part being left free and measured rhythm but with complex melismata. The free melismatic style is used when the original melody of the playsonng is syllabic in nature. Under discantus style, two parts of the play song moves notes by note rhythmically or in forms derived from the music of troubadour. The discantus style is employed especially when playchant is elaborated in lyrical form4. Clausula is another form of Notre Dame Style developed in 12th and 13th century. It is based on small portions of Gregorian chant as opposed to the organa which is based on the whole chant. This style involved squat compositions based on responsorial chant of melisma. Under this style, the tenor has no full text, nevertheless, icipit or just a syllable to show the chant from which tenure is taken from5. Organum Purum is another form of the Notre Dame which is employed where chants are syllabic. This implies situations where tenor cannot be modal. Immediately the tenure employs ligatures, its tenure transforms to modal and becomes discant which is the second type. Copula is the third form which entails the use of loh. de garlandia used between the discant and organum. Under Notre Dame Style, there are some distinctions that exist whether the style is strictly modal or not. Under duplum organum in its purum organum parts of syllables, the parts of cum littera in two-part conductus, monophonic conductus and copulae would be part of repertory. This are not strictly modal. Under monophonic songs, whether it is a conductus or a chant by Petrotin, musical standards for declamation is not varied as was the case with traditional types. Research has shown that there is a lot of variance and fluency of declamatory speech rhythms used in chants and should, therefore, govern it6. Florid organum is a musical genre of the twentieth century. Under this genre, there exist between two to six notes sung in the original voice but under a single nonstop note in the tenor. This is the principle also followed by the Paris duplum organum and Saint Martial organum. In the mid twentieth century,
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Cite this document
(“Polyphony in the Middle Ages Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 words”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/music/1449906-polyphony-in-the-middle-ages
(Polyphony in the Middle Ages Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words)
“Polyphony in the Middle Ages Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2000 Words”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/music/1449906-polyphony-in-the-middle-ages.
Drawing on the observations and evidences of Rhys Carpenter and V. Desborough, the paper concludes that Dark Age is a term that scholars used to name the interruption reported between evolutionary transitions from Mycenaean to Ionian Age.
Bach was better known as an organist than as a composer. He matured as a composer within the German school where creators like Teleman and Vivaldi travelled all over Europe visiting different courts and playing for patrons across cultural and political borders.
Life in the Middle Ages during the time of feudalism brought a social structure that left a wide division between those who held money, and those that worked that same land for little to no pay. Those of wealth and privilege could look forward to a good diet, while those that were of poor could do little more than their daily work.
It connotes the rapidity with which the disease strikes its victims. Plague is endemic among rodents, particularly in central Asia, but does not cause many fatalities. However, if it crosses the biological barrier to attack other species, it can prove deadly. The disease-causing pathogen is the bacillus Yersinia pestis, which was identified by the French bacteriologist Alexandre Yersin only in 1894.
The life of the royals was ravishing whereas the commoner's life during the Dark Ages focused on a strict routine, and revolved their agricultural schedule. Agricultural played a very important role in their lives therefore a lot of attention was given to it.Social activities were looked forward by every common man.
The Need for Co-Existence: Faith and Reason’s Team Work to Intellectual Life Prosperity.
The status of both faith and reason in the middle ages could be considered as at level with one another. Both are regarded as equally important in the intellectual life of the medieval society.
It was especially important for religious ceremonies, sacrifices and feasts. The music was not always happy, as there are many “laments” gloomy warnings or pessimistic reflections of characters or choruses in ancient Greek play, of which music was always a part.
The High Middle Ages were preceded by the Early Middle Ages and followed by the Late Middle Ages, which by convention ends around 1500. The key historical trend of the High Middle Ages was the rapidly increasing population of Europe, which brought about great social and political change from the preceding era.
The ISIS’s (Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) transformation into IS (Islamic State) in 2014 affected the international relations of the Middle East by resulting in political and military imbalance in the region and by affiliating IS to the global network of religious terrorist organizations.
The essay "Women in the Middle Ages" shows that medieval England was not an agreeable place for women; they perpetually had some major difficulties in a period when numerous men existed and lived brutal lives. Women were given different treatment depending on their social and economic background.
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Research Paper on topic Polyphony in the Middle Ages for FREE!