An optical fiber cable is a bundle of glass threads, for transmitting messages modulated onto light waves. An optical fiber uses plastic or silica, and the thickness of one cable (optical thread) is slightly more…
Download file to see previous pages...
ITU-T G.651 and ITU-T G.652 (standard SMF) are the two compositional standards (Alwayn, 2004). Standards that relate to performance govern transmitters and receivers and include; Optical Transport Network the, Synchronous Digital Hierarchy, etc.
Other standards are developed for specific niches. For instance, fiber optics in satellite communication begs other standards to adhere to. The deposition of dopants can be done in three standard ways: inside, outside and axial vapor deposition (Held, 1999). Moreover, advances in the use fiber optic systems has created a demand for standards that enable interoperability between telephone companies and interexchange carriers. Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) in Europe and Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) in North America (Held, 1999) are data transportation vehicle capable of supporting data rates in gigabyte range.
There is not just one way of implementing fiber optic technology. For instance, the most common way for this implementation is a high-speed fiber optic local area network (LAN). Before implementing this technology, a feasibility study is made. If a company needs to go into an area where there are no pre-existing cable networks then implementation is much easier. Fiber optic technology is very different from DSL services, therefore, implementing a new technology in a blank area is much easier. However, if there are copper wires installed for transmitting data then cost justifications, minimizing disruptions for the use of SML and the cost for connecting to NPS backbone LAN, need to be made (Ee, 2004). The demand for high-speed internet usually drives the service providers to move to a better technology.
The greatest hurdle preventing the widespread implementation of fiber optics is its cost. Implementing new fiber optic network is a troublesome task especially when old infrastructures like DSL and cable are already serving the customers
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Wireless Ethernet networks were accepted several years ago, as traditional connectivity solutions were replaced by robust wireless connectivity solutions. Although, several industrial protocols utilized standardized Ethernet physical layer that facilitated automation protocols to be transmitted via wireless media Commercial off the Shelf (COTS) (Brandt, Piggin 2006).
51% of the Malaysian population is Malay, all of whom are Muslims; 26% are Chinese and 7% Indians. The rest 16% of the population consists of other religions belonging to different indigenous groups. Though more than half of the population is Muslim, Malaysia is not an Islamic state.
Basically, fiber optics refer to the cables or lines which contain optically pure glass used to transmit digital information signals. The bedrock of these cables is formed by this optically pure glass which is more or less as thin as a human hair but has astounding ability to carry digital information over far across corners of the world.
In this theory the light is used in the approximation of the light acceptance and also as a guideline property to optical fiber (Hecht 1999, pg. 12). The next theory describes light as being an electromagnetic wave which is known as mode theory or the wave representation approach.
Fibre optics however is being utilized since more than a hundred years. Optical fibre is a model that has evolved greatly over time. From guided transmission lights experiments to lasers and light emitting diodes (LED), and to dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM), the area under which optical fibre can be used has expanded.
dium that is known as an electromagnetic field arrangement in space through means of current placed on antenna, a broadcasting or else wireless structure. However, we can distinguish transmission mediums into wired and wireless communication mediums. In this scenario this