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But the Spaniards began to implement their hidden agenda. They imposed the encomienda system on Pueblo population. As per their motivated plans, the Pueblos were required to give to the Spanish missions and the army, a portion of their agricultural products. The Pueblos were just covering up their own family expenses and had nothing extra to spare, but they were forced to part with their products by the Spanish authorities. The Pueblos were also directed to render free labor in the plantations of the Spaniards. These highhanded actions led to the beginning of the hostilities.
Population-wise Pueblos far outnumbered as compared to those who had come with the avowed objective of colonization. But the Spaniards were cleverly playing the card of religion to win over the Pueblos. “The Franciscans set up a series of missions among the Pueblos with the expectation that they would abandon their religious beliefs for Christianity.” (New Mexico) Those who converted were given the award of land and education for their children. But Pueblos were utterly loyal to their own customs, religion and culture and the Spaniards were unable to make effective and lasting inroads in this area. By now, Spaniards had taken up the option of intimidation to convert and that was resented by the Pueblos. The brewing discontent ultimately led to the revolt leading to the uprising in Acoma in 1599 by the Pueblos. The Spaniards retaliated highhandedly with barbaric vengeance. The authorities ordered amputation of the right foot of every male Pueblo over the age of twenty-five. The rebellion also failed in effect, due to another strong reason-- the inability of various tribes of Pueblo Indians to offer a united front of resistance.
The scheming Spaniards tried to consolidate their hold on the Pueblo Indians with more barbarity. With majority of the male leaders facing persecution, the question of leadership was the issue with the Pueblos. Spanish Governor Juan Francisco Trevino
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