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Fruit fly - Lab Report Example

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A study of genetics reports that an offspring may contain one gene from both parents. Another study in genetics reports the existence of the X- linked traits. In this study, fruit flies…
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Fruit fly
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Genetics involves basic patterns of inheritance and the expression of genes by pea plants. A study of genetics reports that an offspring may contain one gene from both parents. Another study in genetics reports the existence of the X- linked traits. In this study, fruit flies were selected to demonstrate the X-linked trait. Fruit flies are extremely small insects of about 3mm long. They are relevant for a genetic experiment because they utilize small space in comparison to other species. These insects have a natural diet, which does not include extraneous materials. On the other hand, the life cycle of the fruit fly is normally short. In this respect, it lasts for about 26 and 33 days for females and male flies.
The life cycles could also be changed depending on the environment or specific mutations of genetics. At room temperature, the flies may take 10 days from egg to adult. This makes the fruit fly to be the best subjects for a research on genetics since multiple generation could be studied for a short duration of time. The fruit fly life cycle begins whenever an egg is laid by a female that is impregnated. The fly only gives out one egg at a moment. The hatching of the egg occurs within 22 hours, and the larvae mature in a period of four days (Manning 8). After this, the larvae would follow three stages up to the pupa stage. In this stage, pupal case is established, hardens and darkens in duration of 4 to 6 days. Lastly, the pupa changes to the adult stage. The male fruit flies have a body that is small with a black tip on their body’s end. The female fruit fly do have an abdomen that is pointed and are light compared to males. The prime objective the experiment involves the performance of a dihybrid cross.
Flies that were hybrid for two traits (dumpy wings or normal wings, black or normal body) together with two different eye color (wild red type and sepia brown) were provided for the experiment. The two were produced through the crossing of homozygous sepia-eyed flies, normal-winged, red-eyed flies and with dumpy. Prior study have shown out that dumpy wing mutation is an x-linked trait that is recessive thus carried by the x chromosome that determines the sex. Through a punnett square for the initial generation, the genotype that is expected and the ratio phenotype could be found. This is displayed in table 1.
XdwXdw = Dumpy wings female
XbY =black body male
TABLE 1: Punnett square for the generation of dumpy wing male and black body male.
Dumpy wing
Xdw
Dumpy wing
Xdw
Black body
Xb
XdwXb
XdwXb
Black Eye
Y
XdwY
XdwY
According to the table, 1, it is certain that the phenotype ration of the first generation is dumpy wing, half male, half female. This information can be used to generate a second punnett square. Since the female may contain the same genotype, the males may carry same genotype and one punnette square would be created since there fails to be variance in the flies. For the second trait, the punnette square would be given by the table 2.
XwrXwr = wild red type female
X sbY = sepia brown male
TABLE 1: Punnett square for the generation of dumpy wing male and black body male.
Wild red type
Xwr
Wild red type
Xwr
Sepia brown type
Xsb
XwrX sb
XwrXsb
Sepia brown type
Y
XwrY
XwrY
According to the table, 2, it is certain that the phenotype ration of the first generation is white red type, half male, half female.
Work cited
Manning, G. Quick and Simple Introduction to Drosophilas Melanogaster.
 DrosophilaVirtual Library. 2008. Retrieved November 19, 2012 from: http://ceolas.org/VL/fly/intro.html Read More
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