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Classical Physical Science - Research Paper Example

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All atoms strive to complete their outer shells. Metals have extra electrons so they want to donate, whereas, non metal are deficient so they accept electrons. In the process of loosing or gaining electrons these atoms…
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Classical Physical Science
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Ionic and Covalent Bonding Ionic Bonding:
Ionic bonds are formed between metals and non metals only. All atoms strive to complete their outer shells. Metals have extra electrons so they want to donate, whereas, non metal are deficient so they accept electrons. In the process of loosing or gaining electrons these atoms become ions with positive and negative charge. Opposite charges attract and hold these atoms close together in a lattice structure forming multiple ionic bonds. Because these forces of attraction are very strong, ionic compounds have high melting and boiling points as lot of heat is required to break the lattice structure. Ionic compounds are soluble in water because water being a polar molecule attracts these charged ions forcing them to leave the lattice. When dissolved or molten state these ions are free to move and can conduct electricity. (Whitten et al 2007).
Covalent Bonding:
Covalent bonds are formed between non metals. Unlike ionic bonding, covalent bonds between atoms are formed by sharing of electrons. Again, the purpose is to complete outer electron shell. Depending on the number of paired electrons shared by atoms there can be up to three (triple) covalent bonds. But these bonds are not as strong as ionic bonds and most of molecular substances are either gases or liquids at room temperature with low melting or boiling point. If in solid state all molecular substances form a lattice. As atoms in these structures have no charge they cannot conduct electricity even in melted state. The bonds formed by electron sharing may not be very strong but if arranged in a proper order the overall structure can be extremely hard. Diamond and silica are examples of such giant covalent structures. (Whitten et al 2007).
The following table summarizes the difference in properties of ionic and covalent bonding.
Ionic Bond
Covalent Bond
High melting and boiling point
Low melting and boiling point (except few giant structures)
Conduct electricity in dissolved and molten state
Does not conduct electricity
Soluble in water
Insoluble in water

Reference:
Whitten, Kenneth W, Raymond E. Davis, M L. Peck, and George G. Stanley. Chemistry. Australia: Thomson, 2007. Print. Read More
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