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Explain the role of education in internal and international migration. What are the social costs to developing countries due to brain drain What are the major causes of brain drain (topic coninued in the order instructions) - Essay Example

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International migration refers to movement across state boundaries to stay in the host state for a minimum length of time whereas internal migration refers to movement within boundaries of a state. Education plays a crucial role in internal and international migration as most…
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Explain the role of education in internal and international migration. What are the social costs to developing countries due to brain drain What are the major causes of brain drain (topic coninued in the order instructions)
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Role of Education in International and Internal Migration International migration refers to movement across boundaries to stay in the host state for a minimum length of time whereas internal migration refers to movement within boundaries of a state. Education plays a crucial role in internal and international migration as most times people move in search of better economic opportunities. This means that one will migrate to another country to earn more income through a better paying job or to get skills and knowledge to make themselves more marketable. Although in the pursuit of a better job one has to ensure their educational background and skills match the market of the state or region they intend to move to, otherwise it may be tough to secure employment1. In addition, governments and private institutions have been seen to encourage internal migration in a bid to balance development within a country. In this case, offering incentives to students in the urban thus more developed areas to study certain subjects then providing them with employment opportunities in the less developed areas.
Causes and Impact of Brain Drain in Developing Countries
Brain drain occurs when skilled and educated people of a country emigrate in search of better economic opportunities and improved standards of living in a different country. This happens because of various reasons, which include unfavorable policies, strife, and political instability. These can be further broken down into inadequate health services, limited access to education, insufficient jobs, and neglect of human rights.
The most considerable social and economic costs of brain drain on developing countries is a decrease in the number of qualified, skilled and knowledgeable workforce. This occurs when people move to study and work in other countries with better economic opportunities. On the other hand, when people move in to a country while fleeing insecurity and strife in their home countries, they usually come in illegally and therefore do not pay taxes and possess commodities illegally. This implies that governments need to establish stringent policies to deal with this problem while establishing attractive incentives to deal with the former problem. Illegal immigrants will more often than not have minimal education thereby further contributing to the reduction in quality of workers. Lack or insufficiency of trained professionals within a country implies that there will be no role models for children and mentors available to the youth, lack of research on medical problems, lack of supervisors for facilities and development of entrepreneurs2.
Recommendations to Reduce and Reverse Brain Drain in Developing Countries
One of the most viable ways through which a country can reduce or minimize brain drain is by creating a favorable socio-economic environment; by ensuring human rights are respected, maintaining stability and peace while eliminating impunity. Moreover, in a bid to reverse the effects of brain drain, governments in developing countries should stipulate policies that encourage emigrants to return to their home countries. These policies should focus on increasing access to education, improving social services, upgrading infrastructure and maintaining internal security and stability.
Works Cited
Dustmann, Christian and Glitz, Albrecht. “Migration and Education”. Handbook of the Economics of Education. Vol. 4. 2011.
Kyambalesa, Henry. “The Brain Drain: Causes, Effects and Remedies”. 2009. Read More
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