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D5S: Demography and Health: AUSTRALIA AND INDIA - Essay Example

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The demographic structures of the country have demonstrated consistence over the last decade. Majority of the population is between the…
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D5S: Demography and Health: AUSTRALIA AND INDIA
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Demography and Health: Australia and India Demography and Health: Australia and India Australian demographic changes Australia has been recording a steady population increase of over 1.4% over the last two decades, whereby, it recorded a peak of 2.2% in 2008. The demographic structures of the country have demonstrated consistence over the last decade. Majority of the population is between the ages 25 and 55 years. The population group aged between 0 to 24 years, has taken a considerable proportion of the population with the rest dominating the 55 to 80 years bracket. This demographic structure has demonstrated consistent changes, whereby, the number of people in the 55 to 80 age brackets, has been constantly increasing since 2000 and is expected to increase by 2020. Population projections for the year 2020 also demonstrate increase of the elderly. A key point of concern is that the population within the 0 to 25 years bracket, is constant between the years 2000 to 2020. The number of people of the ages 25 to 35 is also expected to increase by the year 2020. The improved healthcare and living standards in Australia is the main reason for the increasing aged population. The young population is relatively constant, and this can be attributed to family planning (NationMaster.com, 2012).
Table 1. Australia demographics from 2000 to 2020
(NationMaster.com, 2012)
Demographic changes in India
Unlike the demographic structure and changes in Australia, the case of India is very distinct. The population pyramid of India takes a smooth pyramid, with majority of the population being at the bottom. The population changes over the last 10 years and in the next 10 years are projected to be constant. Majority of the population are below 30 years, with the 0 to 4 years bracket recording the highest number of people. The population decreases constantly from 0 to 5 years to 80 years, whereby, very few people manage to reach 80 years. This is as contrasted to the population structure of Australia, where majority of the population are between 25 to 35 years, and a considerable percentage are below 25 years and above 50 years. The demographic changes of the two countries share great similarities in the sense that, the aging population is in a constant increase. As evident in the case of Australia at present and in the year 2020, the aging population is in a steady increase. This scenario is also demonstrated by India, whereby, the aging population is expected to double by the year 2020. The young population of below 10 years in India is also expected to reduce by a considerable percentage by 2020, which can be attributed to adoption of family planning. The improved health care and living standards has a great influence on the increasing aging population in India, which is predicted to increase significantly by the year 2020 (NationMaster.com, 2012).
Table 2. India demographics from 2000 to 2020
Significance/reason/impacts of population changes
The population changes in Australia and India over the last ten years and in the next 10 years can be attributed to a number of factors. Improved health care services and living standards are the main factors contributing to the increasing population and more specifically, the aging population. With better healthcare, child mortality is reduced, thus maintaining high life expectancy. Adoption of family planning can be identified as the main factor leading to the current and projected declines in the young population. Family planning and decreased fertility due to education, urbanization and employment among women have contributed to decreasing birth rates, thus limiting the population within the 0 and 10 years bracket. The increasing population of the aging population has a negative impact on socio economic infrastructure, since this age group is dependent on other members of the society. The decline in the young population may impact negatively on labor markets, thus affecting significant progress of the economy. Also, the constant population increase in most of the age brackets has a general impact on the economy and social infrastructure, through increased unemployment, social evils and decreased living standards due to pressure on social amenities. From another perspective, the constant population increase in Australia and India can be translated into increased human capital and ready market, thus steering up economic growth (Batini et al., 2006).
References
Batini, N et al. (2006). The Global Impact of Demographic Change. New York: Prentice Hall.
NationMaster.com. (2012). Australia Age Distribution. Retrieved from:
http://www.nationmaster.com/country/as-australia/Age_distribution
NationMaster.com. (2012). Australia Age Distribution. Retrieved from:
http://www.nationmaster.com/country/in/Age_distribution Read More
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