Free

Helicobacter pylori (Microbiology CS3) - Case Study Example

Comments (0) Cite this document
Summary
Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative, spiral shaped, flagellated, microaerophilic bacterium is found in the lining of the stomach and the duodenum (Mobley, Mendz and Hazell, 2001; Helicobacter Foundation, 2006). It has been widely studied for its ability to survive in the harsh,…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER91.4% of users find it useful
Helicobacter pylori (Microbiology CS3)
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Helicobacter pylori (Microbiology CS3)"

Helicobacter pylori (Microbiology CS3) Schools Number and of (e.g., May 18, 2012)
Helicobacter pylori (Microbiology CS3)
Introduction
Helicobacter pylori, a gram-negative, spiral shaped, flagellated, microaerophilic bacterium is found in the lining of the stomach and the duodenum (Mobley, Mendz and Hazell, 2001; Helicobacter Foundation, 2006). It has been widely studied for its ability to survive in the harsh, acidic and uninhabitable stomach environment. The bacterium lives in the mucus lining where it resists the action of the hydrochloric acid produced by the stomach. It is believed to be transmitted via the oral route by the ingestion of food and water contaminated with fecal matter, or through oral contact (Helicobacter Foundation, 2006). It is also believed to be the etiologic agent for peptic ulcers, gastritis and other gastric disorders (Mobley, Mendz and Hazell, 2001).
Major Enzymes enabling Survival in Host
H. pylori produces several key enzymes that enable it to survive in the host. The enzyme, urease, catalyses the breakdown of urea, which is abundantly available in the stomach, into ammonia and bicarbonate (Helicobacter Foundation, 2006). The resulting ammonia surrounds the bacteria, proving a basic (low pH) environment that protects the bacteria from stomach acid. Another enzyme, superoxide dismutase, protects the bacteria from being killed by macrophages and polymorhonuclear leukocytes by breaking down the dismutase produced by them (Mobley, Mendz and Hazell, 2001). Catalase protects the bacteria from hydrogen peroxide produced by phagocytes (Mobley, Mendz and Hazell).
How common is H. pylori Infection?
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, H. pylori infection afflicts almost two-thirds of the entire population of the world (CDC, 2005). Developing countries have a higher incidence of H. pylori infection than developed countries (Mobley, Mendz and Hazell, 2001).
Age and Social Distribution of People Infected by H. pylori
The infection is more prevalent among lower socio-economic groups and in older adults (CDC, 2005). In the US, Hispanics and African Americans are found to be the most affected (CDC, 2005). The rate of acquisition of the infection differs greatly, both within and across countries (Mobley, Mendz and Hazell, 2001).
Mechanism of Pathogenicity
The bacteria first adhere to the mucin in the epithelial cells of the gastric mucosa (Mobley, Mendz and Hazell, 2001). By altering the rheological properties of the mucus gel, the bacteria coats the lining of the stomach wall (Celli et al. 2009). It then generates a cloud of ammonia around itself to achieve low pH for protection from stomach acid. The ammonia is produced by the hydrolysis of urea. The bacteria also produces phospholipase A that degrades cell membranes by breaking down phospholipids (Mobley, Mendz and Hazell, 2001). H. pylori also produces a toxin called Vac A that is responsible for the production of vacuoles in the epithelial cells (Mobley, Mendz and Hazell, 2001). This toxin is associated with the development of peptic ulcers. Peptic ulcer is not caused directly by H. pylori but rather it is the degradation and inflammation of the stomach lining in response to the H. pylori infection, which causes peptic ulcer.
Gastrointestinal Disorders Associated with H. pylori Infection
H. pylori causes duodenal ulcers, gastric (Stomach) ulcers, stomach cancer and non-ulcer dyspepsia (Helicobacter Foundation, 2006).
Diagnosis
The infection is diagnosed through several methods. Serological tests are used to measure IgG antibodies and the assay specificity ranges from 80-90% (CDC, 2005). The Breath-test is also used for diagnostic purposes. In this test, the patient is made to drink urea labeled with 13C or 14C. The urea is then metabolized. Labeled carbon in the patient’s breath is then measured. Another diagnostic procedure is the upper esophagogastroduodenal endoscopy, in which biopsy samples of the duodenum and stomach are collected and then cultured and subjected to the biopsy urease test and other histologic tests (CDC, 2005).
Drug Treatment and Lifestyle Advice for Patients with Peptic Ulcers
Antibiotics such as tetracycline, metronidazole, amoxicillin, or clarithromycin are given. A proton pump inhibitor or a H2 blocker is given to reduce ulcer-related symptoms and also to heal the damaged gastric mucosa (CDC, 2005). Those suffering from peptic ulcers can make lifestyle modifications, which include healthy diet and other measures for coping with the disease. Bland foods along with milk are recommended and it is advised that small amounts of food should be consumed with every meal. The diet should be rich in fiber and flavonoids. Recommended foods include fruits such as apples and cranberries, vegetables, onions, tea, and celery (Ehrlich, 2011). Spicy foods need to be avoided. Smoking and alcohol abuse has to be minimized or totally avoided. It is also important to reduce coffee and carbonated beverage consumption. Meditation and yoga are also recommended (Ehrlich, 2011).
References
CDC. (2005, September 23). Helicobacter pylori and Peptic Ulcer Disease. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://www.cdc.gov/ulcer/
Celli, J. P., Turner, B. S., Afdhal, N. H., Keates, S., Ghiran, I., Kelly, C. P., Ewoldt, R. H., McKinley, G. H., So, P., Erramilli, S., and Bansil, R. (2009). Helicobacter pylori moves through mucus by reducing mucin viscoelasticity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 106 (34), 14321-14326.
Ehrlich, S. D. (2011, October 13). Peptic ulcer. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/peptic-ulcer-000125.htm
Helicobacter Foundation. (2006). Helicobacter pylori. Retrieved 18 May, 2012 from http://www.helico.com/h_general.html
Mobley, H. L. T., Mendz, G. L., and Hazell, S. T. (2001). Helicobacter Pylori: Physiology and Genetics. Washington DC: ASM Press. Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
  • CHICAGO
(“Helicobacter pylori (Microbiology CS3) Case Study”, n.d.)
Retrieved from https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1596742-helicobacter-pylori-microbiology-cs3
(Helicobacter Pylori (Microbiology CS3) Case Study)
https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1596742-helicobacter-pylori-microbiology-cs3.
“Helicobacter Pylori (Microbiology CS3) Case Study”, n.d. https://studentshare.org/miscellaneous/1596742-helicobacter-pylori-microbiology-cs3.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (0)
Click to create a comment or rate a document

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Helicobacter pylori (Microbiology CS3)

Microbiology

...?Microbiology Essay In 1835 Bassi showed that a fungus caused silkworm disease, and in 1865 Pasteur discovered that a protozoan caused another silkworm disease. Why do we use Koch’s postulates instead of “Bassi’s” or “Pasteur’s” postulates? Bassi and Pasteur both worked on silkworm diseases. Bassi in the year 1835, established that a microscopic organism, a fungus, caused disease in the silk worm. Around 30 years later, in the year 1865, Pasteur established that another microbe, a protozoan, cause infection in silkworms. These findings established an association between the “questioning” microbes and disease. Indicating that disease is caused due to the attack by tiny micro-organisms. This formed the basis for further...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Microbiology

...?Microbiology Compare and contrast photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation. Both photophosphorylation and oxidative phosphorylation result in production of ATP. Photophosphorylation is a process by which ATP is produced using energy of the sunlight. In oxidative phosphorylation, ATP is produced by energy released by the oxidation of nutrients (Boyer, 1977). In photophosphorylation, light energy is used to create a high-energy electron donor and a lower-energy electron acceptor. In oxidative phosphorylation, electrons are transferred from electron donors to electron acceptors such as oxygen, in various redox reactions which are carried out by a series of protein complexes within mitochondria among eukaryotes and...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Microbiology

...?Microbiology Microbiology is the science that studies microorganism. They can be pathogenic or non-pathogenic; they can be beneficial for human environment or be hazardous for human health. This research comprises similarities and differences between Variola viruses or Poxvirus and Staphylococcus epidermis. Moreover, benefits of non-pathogenic microorganisms in human environment are discussed further on. Variola virus and Staphylococcus epidermis: comparing and contrasting Variola virus infects human beings. It can be transmitted to other humans via face-to-face contact or contact with other objects, or through the air. Nevertheless, not all the ways of the virus transmission have been fully defined and studied by the scientists... Microbiolo...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

MICROBIOLOGY

...? Microbiology Practical Describe the full theory behind the catalase test. Why must plain agar be used? Catalase is an enzyme that converts hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen. Aerobic and facultative organisms have developed various protective mechanisms against the toxic forms of oxygen (especially superoxide radicals as they can potentially inactivate vital cell components). Enzyme known as superoxide dismutase, eliminates superoxide radicals by enhancing the rate of reaction. During the process toxic substance hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and hydroxyl radical (OH-) are produced, which in turn is dissipated by catalase and peroxide enzymes respectively. Catalase test is used to identify organisms that are capable of...
10 Pages(2500 words)Coursework

Microbiology

... of Lactic acid producing Bacteria and preparation of Camel Milk Cheese by using Starter Culture, Pakistan Veterinary Journal, Vol.24, No.2. Benson, HJ., 2001. Microbiological Application: Laboratory Manual in General Microbiology, McGraw –Hill. Dart, RK., 1996. Microbiology for the Analytical Chemist, Royal Society of Chemistry. Gunasekaran, P., 2007. Laboratory Manual in Microbiology, New Age International. Hoque, MZ, Akter, F, Hossain, KM, Rahman, MSM, Billah, MM and Islam, KMD., 2010. Isolation, Identification and Analysis of Probiotic Properties of Lactobacillus Spp. From Selective Regional Yoghurts, World Journal of Dairy and Food sciences, Vol.5, No.1, pp: 39-46. Lessard, MH, Belanger, G, St- Gelais, D and Labrie, S., 2012... . The...
6 Pages(1500 words)Lab Report

Microbiology

.... This will definitely lead us into future challenges and newer perspectives regarding the nature of the GI tract microbiota in diabetic mammalian systems. References 1. "Enterococcus Agar according to Slanetz and Bartley", 2000, The Royal Veterinary and Agricultural University of Copenhagen, retrieved from: http://www.microbiologyatlas.kvl.dk/biologi/english/showbio.asparticleid=plade%2011 on January 1, 2009. 2. "BACTERIOLOGY - CHAPTER ELEVEN ENTEROBACTERIACEAE VIBRIO, CAMPYLOBACTER AND HELICOBACTER", 2007, Microbiology and Immunology Online University of South Carolina School of Medicine, retrieved from: http://pathmicro.med.sc.edu/fox/enterobact.htm on January 1, 2009. 3. "Mannitol...
30 Pages(7500 words)Lab Report

Helicobacter pylori in gastrointestinal disorders

...Introduction Helicobacter pylori is a slow growing, highly motile, microaerophilic, spiral-shaped, gram-negative bacteria (Graham & Sung, 2006). It is reported that at least 50% of the worlds population is infected with H. pylori (Ables, Simon, Melton, 2007). H.pylori is linked to histologic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, primary B cell gastric lymphoma and adenocarcinoma of the stomach (Graham & Sung, 2006). The bacterium shows an affinity for the gastric epithelium and elicits a strong inflammatory and immune response (Graham & Sung, 2006). The most characteristic biochemical feature of H. pylori is the production of urease (Graham & Sung, 2006). Epidemiology H.pylori infection is typically acquired in childhood... , 2006). ...
12 Pages(3000 words)Essay

MICROBIOLOGY

...1. a. Substances capable of inducing specific immune responses are referred to as antigens. The properties of a good antigen are – 1. Induction of an immune response(immunogenecity) 2. Specific reaction with antibodies or sensitized cells( immunological reactivity) b. 2. a b. Immunoglobulin are of 5 classes namely IgG, IgA, IgM, IgD & IgE. IgG: - This is the major serum immunologlobulin constitutes about 80% of total serum immunoglobulin. It has a molecular weight of 1,50,000. There are four IGg sub classes in humans, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4 IgA: - This is the 2nd most abundant class, constituting about 10-15% of serum immunoglobulin. It is a major... a. Substances...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Microbiology

...Microbiology Introduction: The food ingredients that are used in the domestic kitchen are found to contain potential pathogenic micro organisms. They are found to cause large outbreaks of food borne diseases. The foods are prepared either by the untrained people or trained people without following the food safety methods. Of the foods, poultry was identified as the major source for pathogenic micro organisms mainly concentrated on the raw chicken that are mainly concentrated with Escherichia Coli, Campylobacter, Salmonella and Staphylococcus. The raw chicken wash waters are found to contain a large number of coliform and the hygiene of the washing up clothes is also generally poor. An evaluation of the total viable count...
6 Pages(1500 words)Essay

H. pylori

...might physicians of the future prescribe Helicobacter as a pro biotic for treating patients? H pylori absence in the body might lead to an increased risk of numerous diseases. According to various studies conducted, it is known that esophageal diseases presence is high on H pylori negative individuals. Its absence can lead affect the stomachs micro biota. The lack of H pylori mostly among kids has led to increased risk of asthma and allergies (Martin 7). Virulence factors are structures, chemicals, and metabolic functions that increase the chance an organism will cause disease. C A G (A) and V a C (A) are virulence factors of Helicobacter...
2 Pages(500 words)Research Paper
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Case Study on topic Helicobacter pylori (Microbiology CS3) for FREE!

Contact Us