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Biochemistry of nutrition - Assignment Example

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Prokaryotes, such as E. coli bacteria, have only one single circular chromosome in its cell. DNA replication proceeds rapidly in one direction until all parts of the chromosome are…
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28 April Why is it necessary for DNA replication to occur in a great many separated areas at once, as opposed to just unzippering a DNA from end to end to replicate it?
The number of origins of replication, called ori, differs from prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Prokaryotes, such as E. coli bacteria, have only one single circular chromosome in its cell. DNA replication proceeds rapidly in one direction until all parts of the chromosome are copied.
In eukaryotes such as humans, chromosomes exist as large complexes of nucleotides that are tightly bound to histones. DNA replication proceeds in two directions (bi-directionally), and is semi- conservative (“DNA Replication” 1). Parent DNA strands act as template to the formation of new daughter strands complementary to each other. DNA replication occurs in the synthesis stage of the cell cycle (Devlin 234).
In frequently dividing cells, DNA replication should occur rapidly to supply new copies of DNA at the end of mitosis in the cell cycle. Since the DNA in eukaryotes are long and consists of thousands of base-pairs, starting in only one origin takes too much time. Thus, it is necessary that there would be several ori sequences starting simultaneously to speed up the replication process. Each time the cell divides, the ori sequences ensure that the replication starts and terminates efficiently (DePamphilis 47). At the end of each replication, the fragments will then be joined together with special enzymes to form each of the elongated DNA molecules.
Works Cited
DePamphilis, ML. “Origins of DNA Replication”. National Institutes of Health. Maryland: Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, 1996. Print.
“DNA Replication.” Integrated DNA Technologies, 2011. Web. 28 Apr. 2012.
Devlin, Thomas M. Textbook of Biochemistry with Clinical Correlations. 7th edition. Philadelphia: John Wiley and Sons, 2011. Print. Read More
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