DNA synthesis and repair - Essay Example

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All the cells in a human being have the same composition of DNA which is located in similar amounts in the nucleus of each cell. The DNA…
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DNA synthesis and repair
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Download file to see previous pages contains over 3 billion bases that are similar in all people but the order of their arrangement determines the uniqueness of one individual and can be used to determine if there is any relationship between individuals.
The DNA bases combine with each other to form a base pair for example when A combines with T, C and G they form a pair that is unique for each human being (Adams and OIRL Press, 1991, p.17). Each base is combined with a sugar molecule and a phosphate molecule and the combination is called a nucleotide which is arranged in two long strands forming a double helix. The spiral nucleotide forms its self like a ladder with the DNA pairs as the ladder rungs while the sugar ad phosphate molecules act like the sidepieces of a ladder (Kornberg and Baker, 2005, p.7). DNA serves the purpose of storing biological information since it is resistant to cleavage and both strands store the same biological information (Adams and OIRL Press, 1991, p.44).
In the human body cells, there are normally 46 strands of DNA that are called chromosomes and they are coded in a sequence of heterocyclic amines (Adams and OIRL Press, 1991, p.47). The chromosomes contain genes that contain hereditary information used to distinguish an individual from another or establish their biological information. The human body cells are in a continuous process of multiplication due to cell damage and body growth. Prior to cell division the DNA material that was previously in the cell must be duplicated so that the cell to come after cell division will have a full amount of DNA material. The semi-conservertive process by which the dna material is duplicated is called DNA replication. The process is termed as semi conservertive since the DNA in the new cell contains one strand from the previous cell and a newly synthesized strand and DNA Replication take place by breaking the hydrogen bonds between bases of the two antiparallel strands (Adams and OIRL Press, 1991, p.50). The unwinding of the two ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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