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2. Why, when and by whom was the NAACP founded Assess its effectiveness - Essay Example

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NAACP is the abbreviation of (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) is a civil rights organization that was founded on February 12 1909. NAACP has been effective in eradicating racial discrimination and promoting civil rights equality in the United States…
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NAACP has been effective in its activities Introduction NAACP is the abbreviation of (National Association for the Advancement of Colored People) is a civil rights organization that was founded on February 12 1909. NAACP has been effective in eradicating racial discrimination and promoting civil rights equality in the United States. NAACP is one of the largest and oldest civil rights organizations with more than half million members in the United States. NAACP was formed following the race riots of 1908 in Illinois where numerous Blacks and other minority groups were lynched1.
The initial purpose was to end racial segregation and advocate for the civil rights of minorities. The founders included WEB Dubois (African American), William English Walling (Caucasian) and Ida Wells-Barnett (German-born Caucasian). Other White liberals who participated in the formation include Mary White and Henry Moscowitz. Early members of NAACP include Jane Addams, Mary Talbert, Charles Russell, George White and Ray Baker. Following the Niagara Movement (1905) objectives, NAACP clearly stated that it was focused on ensuring civil rights of all people that were provided by 13th, 14th and 15th Amendments of the Constitution that provided equal legal rights and abolishment of slavery2.
In 1915, NAACP petitioned showing of the birth of a nation film. In 1919, NAACP organized a symposium and published the “thirty years of lynching in the United States 1899-1918”. NAACP supported the Anti-lynching bill that was destined to ending instances of lynching in America but the Senate rejected the bill. Another notable contribution was involvement in Harlem Renaissance where Black Americans wanted more rights to engage in artistic and intellectual activities in the society. Through the tireless efforts of NAACP, many Blacks became respected authors, dancers, singers and artists in 1920s and 1930s. NAACP also helped the minority households who faced harsh economic situation during the Great Depression by advocating for the reduction in taxes. The organization campaigned for the end of racial discrimination in the armed forces and other State defense industries. President Roosevelt finally accepted to allow minorities to participate in thousands of State jobs after NAACP threatened to organize public marches in 1941. The struggle for equality in employment led to the establishment of Fair Employment Practices Committee (FEPC) that was supposed to ensure fairness in employment matters3.
NAACP participated in ending racial segregation. Thurgood Marshall, the head of educational and legal defense fund, advanced the rights of minorities by legal and judicial action. He presented and won numerous cases in the Supreme Court and was later to head the U.S Supreme Court due to his contribution in fighting for the rights of minority. The legal department participated in change of the “separate but equal” doctrine in the case of Brown V. Board of Education in 1954. In 1960s, NAACP civil rights movements resulted to passage of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Voting rights Act. The organization provided bail for Freedom Riders who had gone to Mississippi to register Black voters by disregarding Jim Crow Policies4.
The current main objective of NAACP is ton promote and safeguard political, social, economic and educational equality of minorities in the U.S and eradicate racial discrimination and prejudices through democratic means. In 2009, the organization established criminal justice program to advance law enforcement efforts and advocate for reforms in criminal sentencing as well as end barriers in employment of formerly incarcerated citizens. NAACP defended Troy Davis who had been wrongfully accused of death of a police officer in Georgia5.
Conclusion
NAACP has actively participated in promoting civil rights and racial equality of the minority groups. NAACP efforts have been effective and still are effective since it offers judicial defense support to the poor. NAACP has done tremendous work in ensuring racial equality and judicial reforms in the United States of America.
Bibliography:
Sullivan, Patricia. Lift every voice: the NAACP and the making of civil rights movement. New York. New Press. 2009. Read More
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