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The adverse medical, social, and spiritual consequences of marijuana and opiod addictions on the indiviual nd society - Research Paper Example

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Marijuana use was first recorded in China almost 5000 years ago when it was medically used to treat constipation, malaria, to ease pain during childbirth and as a surgical anesthetic (Doweiko, 2009). In America cannabis was first used to make hemp fibers that produced ropes as…
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Download file to see previous pages The Sumerians of 4000BC and Egyptions of 2000BC were the first to experience their pain relieving and euphoric effects. International awareness on the issue of opioid abuse started when President T. Roosevelt convened the Shanghai Opium Commission in 1909. The commission was to assist the Chinese empire stamp out opioid addiction (Preda, 2012).
Marijuana is illegal as a substance of abuse. In spite of this, physicians have produced evidence suggesting that marijuana, or some of its components can play an important role in treating some of the diseases that affect mankind. Statistically, marijuana is the most abused illicit substance in the world (Doweiko, 2009). It is estimated that about 166 million persons above 15yrs use this substance on a regular basis. It is the most abuse substance in the United States. About 43% of persons over 18yrs abuse marijuana daily in America.
Marijuana abuse produces very strong effects. Users of the substance experience a mild feeling of relaxation, euphoria, sensory distortions and alteration of an individual’s perception of usual activities such as watching television, eating and having sex (Doweiko, 2009). Others may have enhanced perceptions of sounds and colors. In social environments, marijuana smokers may talk excessively and display infectious laughter. High potency marijuana causes a synesthesia like experience and enhanced tactile sensations. Research shows that very low use of marijuana seems to stimulate the brain to release serotonin which causes antidepressant effects that help reduce depression (Doweiko, 2009).
Opioids bind to opioid receptors found on neurons that exist in nervous and immune system. There are four major types of opioid receptors. These are mu, delta, kappa and OFQ/N. These receptors act as binding sites for endogenous peptides, such as enkephalins, endorphins and dynorphins (Doweiko, 2009) . These peptides perform regulatory and modulating functions, including ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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