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James Burkes - Essay Example

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They were intimate with every smell and sound in nature and everything was natural. Court proceedings were done orally including news of the day.
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James Burkes
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James Burke’s 8 March According to James Burke, before 1450 life was intensely local, most people were illiterate, lived and died in the same cottage. They were intimate with every smell and sound in nature and everything was natural. Court proceedings were done orally including news of the day.
The local country life was dull and empty. Publishing and printing of books was done carefully by hand, finishing a single book could take a year and writings were never questioned even in situations where contents had mistakes.
Filling systems did not exist and to find something one had to look around a little harder. Consequently a lot of materials got lost with no one being aware. By the end of the 14th century there was a boom for everything that could be sold, everyone who had something to sell went to sell and this was the beginning of goods and money being exchanged. Towns and businesses developed giving a meaning to paperwork and a need to keep records.
As business grew, demand for documentation also grew and the number of writers increased. In 1439 metal bars with engraved letters for faster printing were invented; they would be arranged in a paper frame, smeared with ink allowing printing of as many similar pages as it could get. Arrangement would be changed to make different page contents. This ensured access to Church Bibles, pamphlets and other documents.
Rebellion started through pamphlets when Luther printed fourteen complaints to the Church, one being that forgiveness pamphlets were not supposed to be sold. This gave people a chance to express their disagreements.
Books in different fields were printed and fashion spread worldwide, with printed science materials scientists were able to correct mistakes. Book fairs were held all over Europe boosting everyone’s sense of identity. Emergence of libraries triggered indexing and cross indexing that would show relations in content, thus, leading to more knowledge discovery. In 1939 the computer was invented; it has led to numerous growths in the field of science and technology.
Before the 16th century, the church controlled everything and anything in the Bible was not questioned. Copernicus, who was a priest, researched on heavenly arrangements contradicting views that the Earth was the center of the universe; he discovered that the sun was at the center of the universe. After his discovery he published manuscripts saying that the Earth moves and the sun was at the center of the universe but no one believed him.
More researches were done proving that circular motion becomes straight when released and Aristotle’s discovery on the universe, which seemed to be perfect, was contradicted with discovery of new stars and comets that moved. In 1610 Galileo published his discoveries that were all a contradiction of what Aristotle had found out and this led to his arrest. Later it was discovered that planets move at different speeds, the slowest being the ones further away from the sun.
According to Carolyn Merchant, the female was female and, hence, the mother of all things from which nature was conceived. These conceptions were changed by science and revolutions in technology.
Works Cited
Burke, James. The Day the Universe Changed Episode 4. Web. 8 March 2012. < http://watchdocumentary.com/watch/the-day-the-universe-changed-episode-04-a-matter-of-fact-printing-transforms-knowledge-video_e042e2ab6.html >.
Burke, James. The Day the Universe Changed Episode 5. Web. 8 March 2012. < http://watchdocumentary.com/watch/the-day-the-universe-changed-episode-05-infinitely-reasonable-science-revises-the-heavens-video_a3c4be0d7.html >. Read More
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