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Batch Distillation Column - Assignment Example

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The refractive index for the sample is indicative of the composition of the mixture at the particular instance. In particular, the mole…
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Batch Distillation Column
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MCCABE-THIELE ANALYSIS OF BATCH DISTILLATION Results and Inferences The following results were obtained during the batch distillation experiment:
Thermocouple
After 15 minutes
After 30 minutes
Steady State
T1
77
78
70
T2
64
63
64
T3
63
63
63
T4
63
63
63
Take-off sample: 66
Bottom Sample: 97
After 15 minutes
After 30 minutes
Steady State
Top
1.33089
1.32980
1.32937
Bottom
1.33445
1.33448
1.33447
From the Composition-Refractive Index graph that has been provided, the above data on refractive index at different times becomes useful. The refractive index for the sample is indicative of the composition of the mixture at the particular instance. In particular, the mole fraction of methanol in the mixture is provided. From the above data, the following values can be deduced:
After 15 minutes
After 30 minutes
Steady State
Mole fraction of methanol at the top
0.9600
0.9620
0.9800
Mole fraction of methanol at the bottom
0.0500
0.0530
0.0520
The vapour and the liquid flowing above the tray are indicated by V and L respectively.
For this same section, Vi = D + Li-1
yiVi = x0D + xi-1Li-1
The operating line represents the combined mass and energy balances, as they occur in the rectifying section of the column. The above equations are applicable only when i = 1, 2, 3,..., n, and more specifically, when i = 1 gives y1 =xo = xD
Tray efficiency, ɳ = 
Rectifying section:
T1
T2
T3
T4
x-axis
0.8
0.77
0.72
0.69
y-axis
0.78
0.68
0.66
0.67
Stripping section:
T1
T2
T3
T4
x-axis
0.23
0.35
0.46
0.58
y-axis
0.38
0.46
0.54
0.66
The middle diagonal runs straight from the origin (0,0) to the upper left corner of the graph whose coordinates are (1,1)
y axis
X axis
The above is a sketch indicating the expected graph.
The straight line in the middle is referred to as the rectifying section. It represents the linear relationship between the heavier component and the lighter component in the mixture. The step wise regions are illustrative of the number of the thermocouples present in the column. It is important to note that though the given column had four thermocouples, five are represented in the diagram. The fifth is the reboiler. While calculating, the number of trays is given as one less those that are shown in the graph.
The trays offer equilibrating surfaces, allowing for the vapour and liquid phases of the components of the mixture to equilibrate. The feed line is also used in this process. When the feed is introduced at the fourth stage, it coincides with the operating lines. In the event that this does not happen, it becomes evident that the liquid being used as a feed is not saturated. This experiment exemplifies this scenario. In such a case, the McCabe-Thiele diagram becomes a simple line graph.
The McCabe-Thiele diagram is usually used in calculating the number of stages that have been used in the procedure. This is usually necessary when the efficiency of the system needs to be improved. Liquid concentration samples taken at the end of the distillation period are used to work out various other functions that will be required for subsequent calculations. This process normally goes on until such a time that the compositions of obtained samples do not show any changes. This point is known as the steady state, and it is useful in analysis of how efficient the distillation has been. Near-pure samples are obtained by this process.
Reference
Haug-Warbeg, T. (2005, August 31). McCabe-Thiele Diagrams for Binary Distillation.
Retrieved February 9, 2012, from
http://www.nt.ntnu.no/users/haugwarb/TKP4105_Separation_Technology/Handouts/
McCabeThieleMethod.pdf Read More
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