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What are the main factors contributing to low expectancy in the developing world Investigate possible solutions to these problems - Essay Example

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Different living things have different number of years they can live. As far as human beings are concerned, previous experience has it that it is possible for people to live for…
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What are the main factors contributing to low expectancy in the developing world Investigate possible solutions to these problems
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What are the main factors contributing to low expectancy in the developing world? Investigate possible solutions to these problems Introduction The fact that all living things die after some time of existence is not a new scientific finding. Different living things have different number of years they can live. As far as human beings are concerned, previous experience has it that it is possible for people to live for over hundred years. However, it is not all people who live up to hundred. Invariably, different people living in different parts of the world have an average number of years they live. This average is known as life expectancy. According to the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (2011), “life expectancy is an indicator of how long a person can expect to live on average given prevailing mortality rates.” Different countries have different life expectancy rates because of differences in prevailing mortality factors. Existing research shows that there is generally low expectancy in developing countries as compared to developed world (Dalkhat, 2007). In this essay, the various factors that accounts for the low expectancy in developing world are critically analysed.
Factors Contributing to Low Life Expectancy
Poverty
The table below gives a list of first ten countries with highest life expectancy and last ten countries with least life expectancy against their individual gross domestic product (GDP) for 2011
Expectancy World Ranking
Country
Average Age
GDP per capita income (USD)
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
218.
219.
220.
221.
222.
223.
224.
225.
226.
227.
Monaco
Macau
San Marino
Andorra
Guernsey
Japan
Singapore
Hong Kong
Australia
Italy
Somalia
Central Africa Republic
Zimbabwe
South Africa
Guinea-Bissau
Swaziland
Chad
Nigeria
Afghanistan
Angola
89.73
84.41
83.01
82.43
82.16
82.25
82.14
82.04
81.81
81.77
50.4
50.07
49.64
49.33
48.7
48.66
48.33
47.56
45.02
38.76
172,676
40,919
49,300
44,952
43,400
42,783
43,117
31,514
55,672
34,059
139
429
595
7,300
500
3,133
837
1,222
362
5,000
Source: Nation Master (2011)
The table above gives a very glaring proof of the fact that poverty is a factor that accounts for low expectancy in developing countries. This is because all least scoring countries on the expectancy have very low low per capita income as compared to the first ten highest scoring countries. Poverty leads to malnutrition, ill-health and other life threatening health and social issues that affect the chances of people living for long.
Poor Healthcare System
Highly related to the first factor, poverty causes most developing countries not to have very comprehensive and well managed healthcare system in place. Undeniably, quality healthcare is responsible for improved and increased quality healthcare of the citizenry. The Insurance Risk Guide (2009) outlines three major components of quality healthcare system. These include “adequate scientific knowledge for supporting high quality health care” (Insurance Risk Guide, 2009). This point trumpets the need for comprehensive scientific research into finding new and most workable discoveries that need to be put in place in the health sector. Without any doubt, this cannot be done in the absence of personnel, financing sourcing and scientific techniques. Sadly, these cannot be done in the midst of poverty. The second component is adequate access to Health Care. In developing countries, it is sad to note that access to healthcare is only available to the privileged few. The final component is Medical Persons and Medical Institutions. The meaning of this is that the absence of health professional and facilities cannot promote quality healthcare. But in developing countries, there are inadequate health practitioners and health facilities (Koduah, 2009).
War and Acts of Violence
War and acts of violence such as robbery threaten the existence and expectancy of people. This is because these acts lead to death. Unfortunately, there exist such acts of war in several developing countries. As per the table above, several countries in the last ten slot of the life expectancy rate either have existing civil war or history of civil war.
Conclusion
Even though we all will exit the world one day, it is very important that conditions that will make people live their lives to the fullest are put in place. As discussed above, most of the contributing factors to low expectancy in developing world are avoidable. Leaders, advocates and individuals living in such nations are admonished to take advantage of the fact that they are in a position to protecting their lives to do so. Finally, it is suggested that specific acts and social interventions that would help in improving the life of the populace are undertaken by political leaders. The transformation of those countries into developed world should be the focus of leaders as this would go a long way to increase the expectancy of people.
REFERENCE LIST
Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, 2011, ‘Life expectancy’, Accessed November 25, 2011
Dalkhat M. E., 2007, ‘Life Expectancy in Developed Countries Is Higher Than Conventionally Estimated. Implications from Improved Measurement of Human Longevity’, Accessed November 25, 2011
Insurance Risk Guide, 2009, ‘Six Components of High Quality in Health Care’, Accessed November 24, 2011
Koduah G. Q., 2009, ‘Quality Health Care Delivery in Developing Countries’, London: PrintMark Publication Limited
Nation Master, 2011, ‘Health Statistics > Life expectancy at birth > total population (most recent) by country’, Accessed November 25, 2011 Read More
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