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Why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom - Annotated Bibliography Example

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This disorder affects in general 2-5% of children in UK and almost the same in USA. This means that in a class of 60 students at least 2 of them are suffering from ADHD.A child with ADHD exhibits one of the following…
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Why does ADHD impact on academic performance and what can be done to support ADHD children in the classroom
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Impact of ADHD on Academic Performance 11/09 [Type the company Impact of ADHD on Academic Performance ADHD stand for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity disorder. This disorder affects in general 2-5% of children in UK and almost the same in USA. This means that in a class of 60 students at least 2 of them are suffering from ADHD.A child with ADHD exhibits one of the following symptoms- (George J. DuPaul, 2003)
Lack of Concentration
Hyperactivity
Impulsivity
While most of the children can be said to have shown the above symptoms at some point of their life or other r, a child with ADHD is facing these problems consistently over a long period of time.
Impact on Academics
A child suffering from ADHD usually performs poorly at school. We will discuss some of the reasons which lead to bad academic performance.
Poor Decision Making – Children suffering from ADHD are easily distracted. This distraction is usually not only from external stimuli but also from internal thinking. Such distraction is highly beneficial when “out of the box” solutions are required as their brain can flip through different ideas quickly but hampers decision making ability. The child is also labeled as a day dreamer in class. (NCP, 2008)
Impulsiveness – Executive functions of the brain help human beings to inhibit emotional outbursts and impulsive behavior. A school going child usually uses these function to reason out the benefits of doing homework against watching cartoons but a child with ADHD is unable to do so. He is not able to plan ahead for his examinations, learn from previous mistakes or consider consequences of impulsive actions. All this leads to bad academic performance. (George J. DuPaul, 2003)
Low Self Esteem and confidence – Children with ADHD are usually laggards in the class and are not able to complete their tasks efficiently. This leads to reprimand from teachers as well as ridicule from fellow students. This lead to low self esteem and a belief that they won’t be able to do anything well in life. This usually has disastrous consequences for the child. (Craig A. Everett, 2001)
Rule Breaker – A child with ADHD usually challenges authority at every opportunity he gets. He does not like to follow rules and regulations. Teachers at school do not like to see this attitude and may decide to target the student as they might regard this attitude as not a medical problem but disrespect.
Use of Computers
Trout, A., & H, E. M. (2007). A review of non-medication interventions to improve academic performace of children and youth. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs , 47-54.
The authors of this journal article have studied in-depth about the different methods in which non-medication support can be provided to ADHD children. We will discuss the main points which have been mentioned in the article.
It has been proved through this study conducted by Rebecca Shaw and Vicky Lewis that children with ADHD produced the greatest number of accurate responses regarding basic computerized tasks as compared to children with no disorder. Computerized and graphic representation of facts and figures help children with ADHD to improve concentration .Various educational software have been made for ADHD children and have proved to improve their task focus , behavior in class and also academic performance. However it was seen that their performance decreased even below normal levels when animated computer graphics was used. This was probably because animations distracted the children and reduced their attention span.
Classroom intervention techniques
Christopher, R., & F, M. T. (2004). Classroom Inerventions : MEthods to improve academic performances and classroom behaviour for students with ADHD. International Journal of Special Education , 1-13.
This article discusses the ways in which different methods of classroom techniques can be used to improve the performance of ADHD students.
Computers and software may not always be available to school teachers. However behavioral techniques such as classroom structure, teaching modifications, peer interventions, token economics and self management do help ADHD children significantly. ADHD children generally benefit from an orderly classroom as compared to a class room full of clutter. A small physical change in design of classrooms improves their performances significantly. The instructor can also help by keeping the classroom interactive and interesting. He should attempt to focus on one task at a time to prevent distraction of children. Instructors should also use fellow class mates to improve performance. These classmates can be used as tutors or for giving feedback. This has a positive attempt as ADHD children consider them as equals and do not try to challenge their authority if they correct them on any instance. Self Management technique takes in to consideration the fact that ADHD children suffer from inability to cope with authority. They do not like to be told what they have to do. In order to circumvent this problem they are encouraged to keep a record of their own behavior and also the consequences that they had to face whenever they behaved in a particular way. (Christopher & F, 2004)

Provision of extra time for ADHD students.
Massetti, G. M., Hart, K. C., & Jr, W. E. (2008). Effect of Extra Time on Children with ADHD. New York: University of New York .
The above article discusses the provision of providing extra time to ADHD students as compared to normal students to complete class-room activities.
Many experts believed in giving extra time to students with ADHD for completing academic tasks. However studies have proved that this is not helpful in any way but creates a lot of problem. Fellow classmates usually become jealous of such special treatment and the ADHD child himself suffers further from lack of confidence and is also isolated from his peers. The
Provision of extra time goes against the fundamental principal regarding ADHD students that they are not able to concentrate on a task for extended periods of time. The researchers in the above article have conducted studies and finally come to the conclusion that providing extra time for class work to students with ADHD may prove contrary to the objective of helping them achieves academic excellence.
Managing ADHD in Children
M, W. L., K, H. P., & B, H. K. (April 2011 Volume 60). Managing ADHD in Children : Are you doing enough? Journal of Family Practice , E1 - E3.
The above journal article discusses the various management techniques that could be used by parents and educators in order to manage ADHD in children. The article discusses the need to educate parents about the common ADHD symptoms and the various treatment strategies available. Pharmacotherapy should be initiated under an agent identified by the FDA. When medications are started the side effects of this medication should be thoroughly explained to the parents. The option also discusses the various methods of monitoring such as measuring height and weight, evaluating the success of the treatment several times a year. The article also discusses the option of using virtual reality. It discusses about the benefits of virtual classroom. A virtual classroom situation can emulate the real classroom situation and also gauge the difference in the concentration levels and the performance level of the child when the conditions are changed. Virtual reality does not have the constraints of the physical world and can simulate different situations easily.
Using Characteristics of ADHD children in positive light
Honos-Webb, L. (2010). The Gift of ADHD : How to transform your childs problem into strengths. USA: New Harbinger Publications.
The book discusses ADHD children in a positive light. It not only discusses the various ways to handle these children and help them to improve their performance but also states the fact that ADHD children are unique and should be treated as such. These children are normally very good with computers and are regarded as out of the box thinkers. The book praises these abilities of ADHD children and asks parents to encourage the children to use these facilities that they have. The book also discusses the various career options which will be suitable for ADHD children. The books goes on to say that ADHD might be regarded as a disorder but these children have certain qualities which should be appreciated and positive re-enforcements should be given to children to enhance these qualities which are in abundance in ADHD children.
Conclusion
Children suffering from ADHD are challenging to handle and often labeled as problem child. But the fact remains that the behavioral management and reward strategies which need to be applied for ADHD children can help all the children. Understanding ADHD behavior is the first way in providing solution. Once this has been done, ADHD will be regarded as a medical problem and no longer will the child be blamed for his deficiencies.
Bibliography
Christopher, R., & F, M. T. (2004). Classroom Inerventions : MEthods to improve academic performances and classroom behaviour for students with ADHD. International Journal of Special Education , 1-13.
Craig A. Everett, S. V. (2001). Family Therapy for ADHD : Treating Children , Adolescents and Adults. USA: Guilford Press.
George J. DuPaul, G. D. (2003). ADHD in the Schools : assesement and Intervention Strategies. Guilford Press.
Honos-Webb, L. (2010). The Gift of ADHD : How to transform your childs problem into strengths. USA: New Harbinger Publications.
M, W. L., K, H. P., & B, H. K. (April 2011 Volume 60). Managing ADHD in Children : Are you doing enough? Journal of Family Practice , E1 - E3.
Massetti, G. M., Hart, K. C., & Jr, W. E. (2008). Effect of Extra Time on Children with ADHD. New York: University of New York .
NCP, C. G. (2008). Straight Talk about ADD and ADHD. Lulu.com.
Trout, A., & H, E. M. (2007). A review of non-medication interventions to improve academic performace of children and youth. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs , 47-54. Read More
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