Contact Us
Sign In / Sign Up for FREE
Go to advanced search...

Descriptive statistics/inferential statistics - Assignment Example

Comments (1) Cite this document
Select a quantitative article that is related to your research question in which the results of some type of a survey are reported. Examine the demographic statistics and the means and standard deviations for items on the survey. What do they tell you about the sample?…
Download full paperFile format: .doc, available for editing
GRAB THE BEST PAPER93.6% of users find it useful
Descriptive statistics/inferential statistics
Read TextPreview

Extract of sample "Descriptive statistics/inferential statistics"

Survey Research Select a quantitative article that is related to your research question in which the results of some type of a survey are reported. Examine the demographic statistics and the means and standard deviations for items on the survey. What do they tell you about the sample? Discuss the ethical issues related to gathering demographic and survey data. 
The study chosen was the Williams et. al. (1998) study wherein the researchers attempted to evaluate the extent to which patient literacy was related to their knowledge of asthma and effective use of the MDI.
The study presents demographic statistics predominantly in the form of frequencies and percentages, and some in the form of means and S.D.’s. The data shows us that there is no significant difference in the data collected from the two different data-collection locations. Also, the participants were relatively similar on all pertinent background variables; so that the researchers could be relatively sure that outside influences did not confound the data.
The study results show that the mean scores for Asthma knowledge descended with lower reading levels (15.1 ± 2.5, 13.9 ± 2.5, 13.4 ± 2.8, and 11.9 ± 2.5). on the other hand, the Standard deviations for all four groups were nearly the same. That shows that the groups were relatively similar in their spread of scores. The consistently descending mean scores show that there are qualitative differences associated with the groups of participants qualifying at different reading levels. The similarity of the S.D’s though, helps us compare these groups with relative ease, as the homogeneity of the variance values shows us that we can compare the groups with some confidence.
There are some ethical concerns with gathering demographic and survey data that need to be kept in mind. Such research can be viewed as an invasion of privacy, as a lot of personal data is gathered. It is necessary to ensure complete confidentiality for all participants. Also, survey data depends on what the participant chooses to respond to, and how the participant chooses to respond. Thus, those who do respond may form only a part of the total population, and may differ from others significantly – a fact that may not get considered. Also, there is no way to always check the veracity of the collected responses.
Kerlinger, F.N.; 1986.  Foundations of behavioral research. Orlando, FL: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, Inc.
Snodgrass, J.G., Levy-Berger, G., & Haydon, M.; 1985. Human experimental psychology. Oxford university press. New York. USA. Print.
Williams, M. V., Baker, D. W., Honig, E. G., Lee, T. M., & Nowlan A., 1998  Inadequate Literacy Is a Barrier to Asthma Knowledge and Self-Care. CHEST.  Vol. 114 (4), pp. 1008-1015.
2. Review the quantitative research article you described in the other threaded discussion, and describe what tests were used (e.g., t-tests and chi-squares). Given the p-values related to the tests, how do you interpret the results? Read the researcher’s conclusions, and share some alternate explanations for the results of the study.
The study chosen was the Williams et. al. (1998) study wherein the researchers attempted to evaluate the extent to which patient literacy was related to their knowledge of asthma and effective use of the MDI. This study uses different statistical techniques like Correlation, Regression analyses and Chi Square to test for trends in order to verify the hypotheses. The study also used t-tests in order to verify that there was no difference in the data collected over two locations.
The correlation coefficients were all found to be highly significant. The main relationship measured here was that of Mean knowledge scores and reading level; where the correlation coefficient was found to be (r = 0.36). This relationship was significant beyond the 0.01 level of significance. This shows that there is a distinct relationship between the extent to which a person is educated and the extent to which he / she is able to care for themselves regards asthma.
The study also used a number of Chi-square calculations to verify the presence of a trend showing that the higher the person’s reading scores; the better they did on the knowledge test. For this the frequency of individuals getting each item right on the Knowledge scale were compared on the basis of their reading scores. All tests were found to be highly significant (all p < 0.001). Tests for trend were also computed for the ability to use an MDI, and again, the same patterns were verified (all p < 0.01).
Multivariate Regression showed that reading levels were the best predictors of both, knowledge and MDI use (all p Read More
Cite this document
  • APA
  • MLA
(“Descriptive statistics/inferential statistics Assignment”, n.d.)
Retrieved from
(Descriptive statistics/Inferential Statistics Assignment)
“Descriptive statistics/Inferential Statistics Assignment”, n.d.
  • Cited: 0 times
Comments (1)
Click to create a comment or rate a document
carrollmaverick added comment 1 year ago
Student rated this paper as
The topic of "Descriptive statistics/inferential statistics" is quite popular among the tasks in university. Still, this essay opens a new perspective of seeing the question. I’ll use the style for my own example.

CHECK THESE SAMPLES OF Descriptive statistics/inferential statistics

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

... Your DIFFERENCES BETWEEN DESCRIPTIVE AND INFERENTIAL STATISTICS The modern society where people interact with, becomes increasingly sophisticated and complicated. Everyday, individuals are bombarded with conflicts, problems and uncertainties; and in their attempt to arrive at the most ideal solutions, they tend to utilize as much principles, methods, tools and wide-range applications like statistical analysis. The information acquired and learned at home, school, offices and other establishments exist in various types - texts, graphical, sounds or in multi media format. These information frequently influence people as they make decisions. Which cellphone to use Which drug to take Which school to go to Which procedures...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Inferential and Descriptive Statistics

...Inferential and descriptive statistics: Introduction: Inferential and descriptive statistics are two methods of analyzing data, descriptive statistics involves simplifying collected data in order to make the data easier to understand, descriptive statistics involves determining measures of central tendencies frequency of variable and dispersion. Inferential statistics on the other hand involves making conclusion, this include statistical hypothesis testing, determining the relationship between two variables, chi square analysis, ANOVA and regression analysis. The following is an analysis of changes that should be undertaken to undertake inferential statistics. Changes: In order to undertake inferential statistics changes should be made...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Statistics/Analysis - Descriptive and Inferential Presentation

...ORIGINAL ITALIAN PIZZA Statistical Analysis Descriptive and Inferential Presentation Quantitative Business Analysis of University Date ORIGINAL ITALIAN PIZZA Statistical Analysis Descriptive and Inferential Presentation 1.0 The Problem The owner of the Original Italian Pizza restaurant chain would like to understand which variable most strongly influences the sales of his specialty, deep-dish pizza. He has gathered data on the monthly sales of deep-dish pizza at his restaurants and observations on other potentially relevant variables for each of his 15 outlets in central Pennsylvania. These data are provided in the attached Excel file. Estimate a simple linear regression model between the quantity sold (Y) and each of the following...
5 Pages(1250 words)Essay

Descriptive or Inferential Statistics

...The Use of Statistics in a News Article The article “Education—Answered Prayers” was published on the National Journal Magazine website d August 16, 1997. There is no specific author named, but the National Journal is a conservative news commentary publication which is also associated with The Atlantic and Washington Week. The article talks about why inner-city Catholic schools are so successful when inner-city public schools are struggling. The author sprinkles statistics throughout the news piece. To set up the section on why Catholic schools are not the answer to struggling schools in general, the author cites the statistic that of 49 million school children in the U.S., only five percent of them attend Catholic schools. It is hard...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Find an example of descriptive or inferential statistics

...WEEK THREE STATISTICS: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS Summary of the report ‘Health department announces 41% drop in deaths among black New Yorkers living with HIV’ was published by the New York’s government press on 7 February 2012. According to the report, there has been a significant decrease in the number of deaths caused by HIV among black people. Current data based on the report shows that HIV related deaths have over the past decade decreased by about forty percent. Fifty percent of these deaths among black people in the United States occurred in the New York City. The report further indicates that an average of twenty one percent of New York residents do not know their HIV status while the black population contributes forty five percent...
1 Pages(250 words)Essay

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Paper

...Descriptive and Inferential Statistics Affiliation: Descriptive statistics is thedescription, analysis and the summarizing of the analyzed data in such a way that a meaningful pattern of data and results is achieved. Descriptive statistics can also be defined as a set of mathematical data that summarizes all the data present in a given population in order to draw a meaningful pattern that would make it easier to understand the data that has been presented and also facilitate in the conclusion later on with the help of other statistical techniques. Descriptive statistics are a summarized and simplified set of data for easier and quicker understanding of a given set of data. That summarized and simplified data however does not present any...
1 Pages(250 words)Research Paper

Explain the difference between descriptive and inferential statistics using examples of both to help illustrate your explanation

...Visual Arts and Film Studies By [Visual Arts and Film Studies] of Statistics refers to the study that involves collection, organization, investigation, elucidation and presentation of data. This study involves all the facets of data, which include scheduling of data collection in terms of design of assessments and experiments. Either one or both of the statistics methodologies can do data analyzing. This essay seeks to examine the differences that exist between the two statistics methodologies: descriptive and inferential statistics. As a point of departure, the descriptive methodology entails specific functions of the sample data, which are fundamentally fascinating in offering description of some characteristics of the whole data. Some...
2 Pages(500 words)Essay

Descriptive & Inferential Statistics

...Hypothesis Individual characteristics and school characteristics affect high school dropout rates. Descriptive Statistics In order to observe high school dropout rates and how they correlate with “Individual Characteristics”, we examined data from various sources on national high school dropout rates of students ages 16 to 24. The data used to analyze the relationship between dropouts and individual Race and Ethnicity was provided by the National Center for Education Services through the Institute of Education Services (ies). Some of our data also came from the U.S. Department of Commerce. We focused on data between 1992 and 2012 because current data collection procedures changed in 1992 and data before then may not have been comparable...
4 Pages(1000 words)Assignment

The question to address is: What have you learned about statistics Discuss the application of each of the course elements in analyzing and making decisions about data (counts and/or measurements). Descriptive statistics Inferential statist

... the individual whether the batter is hitting home runs or singles. It does not inform if a person has been on a stripe or in a slump. The GPA does not provide information to the individual whether the student was in challenging courses or those that are easy or whether they were courses in their primary field or other disciplinary areas. Even provided these demerits, descriptive statistics give a significant summary that may enable comparisons between individuals or other forms of units (Chrisman, 1998). Inferential statistics In regards to inferential statistics, an individual is applying effort to come to conclusions that exceed the immediate data alone. For example, people use inferential statistics to try ti infer from the sample data...
4 Pages(1000 words)Admission/Application Essay

Descriptive and Inferential Statistics

The total cost under this option will be $0 + $ 4,400 = $ 4,400.
On the other hand, when the company decides to recall tires, it will cost it $800 per unit to replace tires with another rand and the probability of tire separation will be 0.001. Thus, the expected loss will be:
From the above summary, the average loss for ten months is $118,358 which is deemed to be the damages for the ten months before Brinks’ contract was terminated.
B. As a Brinks’ Attorney, my objection would be that the damage calculation method considered only a few months; it did not cut across the entire period Brinks had the contract.
Therefore, Ford should recall tires since the total cost for this option is quite lower than that o...
2 Pages(500 words)Assignment

SPSS Statistics Project

Nevertheless, we will assess the hypothesis using a two-tailed test. So according to given conditions we state that null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis will be

The scales utilized within the test instruments will be designed to denote the use of detailed statistical algorithms on the collected data. Preliminary data analysis will include descriptive statistics, which will encompass univariate analytic techniques such as means, modes, and standard deviations, and exploratory descriptive statistics, which will ascertain if the data collected, is normally distributed.

So the Pearson correlation (r) of popularity and math scores is equal to -0.368. So according to this small value of correlation coeffici...
8 Pages(2000 words)Research Paper

Abortion Facts and Statistics

Whether legal or not, every year millions of individual women around the world— of all cultural, religious, and economic backgrounds— seek out abortion when they cannot carry a pregnancy to term.

At present almost two-thirds of the world’s women live in countries where abortion may be legally obtained for a broad range of social, economic or personal reasons. When abortion is made legal, available and safe, women’s reproductive health improves. When women can avoid births that are unwanted, mistimed, or too numerous, their children are more likely to survive and be healthy.
It has long been recognized that the number of abortions can be effectively reduced by educating people on...
11 Pages(2750 words)Report

How Does Statistics Help Create Medicines

...ORD243943 How Does Statistics help create Medicines? Statistics, which has remained well known as a science to study the performance of a government,is a complex discipline aiding much of modern science today. It is used for making decisions of quality and planning strategy. It provides solutions to the uncertain outcomes after identifying these. The drug development is a very lengthy and costly process and statistician is important team member along with scientists right from the beginning. The clinical trials are designed and executed with the help of a statistician. He is responsible for providing feasible research designs viz. Cross over, parallel, probabilities of getting and analyzing non-parametric, ANOVA, ANCOVA etc...
9 Pages(2250 words)Assignment

Probability and Inferences in Statistics

... Abstract In this work, the author explored the role of probability in inferential statistics. Man has discovered several probability distributions. Some of these probability distributions include the binomial, hypergeometric, normal, chi-square, and several other probability distributions. Populations or statistics are assumed to follow one of these several probability distributions and these are used to estimate population parameters as well as test hypotheses on the population. The standard normal distribution, for example, is used to draw inferences on population parameters such as the population mean. The t-statistics is used for inferential purposes involving small samples or where the population variance is unknown. Finally...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Statistics and Quantitative Methods

The method is also not sensitive to variation in the value of money over time. However, it is easy to use and can be used to make a quick assessment of investment viability using existing data (Groppelli & Nikbakht, 2006: pp. 157-158).

Net present value (NPV) takes into account the value of money over time and uses the present value of future cash flows (Lasher, 2008: p. 426). This present value is compared with the initial investment and decision taken on whether the investment is viable over the long term or not. NPV is, therefore, a difference between the present value and the initial investment. If NPV is positive, the project is viable, and if it is negative, the project may be rejected. NPV uses the discount r...
17 Pages(4250 words)Assignment

Statistics of Offenders to Commit Suicide

A more serious suicide problem in correctional facilities, which has come to the fore in recent times, is the gender disparity in the cases of prisoner self-harm and attempted suicide. It is rather intriguing that while they comprise only about 5% of the prison population, female prisoners are observed to attempt more self-harm and attempt suicide compared to males. Notably, between 20% and 24% of female prisoners self-harm while between 5% and 6% of male inmates self-harm every year. The study also found out that cases of self-harm were 30 times higher in female prisoners compared with the general UK population rates, which were reported to be at 0.6%. Hence, this study seeks to establish whether or not, female prisoners attempt...
17 Pages(4250 words)Research Proposal

The Statistics of Abortion in the USA

Despite the emphasis placed on the ethical status of abortion in the United States only surged in the 20th century, the truth is that abortion has existed for a long time in human history. In earlier centuries, women used different techniques to terminate pregnancies if they were categorized as unwanted or risky for the mother. This was the case in many continents a fact that saw abortion a common option in Europe in the 18th century. However, the 19th century brought about a change in the perception of abortion. Laws banning abortion were formulated and reinforced in different regions (Bartkowski et al, 2012). In the United States, the 20th century, was a defining period in the debate surrounding abortion. Prior to 1973, abortion...
6 Pages(1500 words)Case Study

The Role of Statistics in Decisionmaking

It is from this data we get to know more information about the population or universe. The data is obtained from a small portion of a population (sample), carefully selected to represent all population. Analyzing such a small data is easier and cheap as compared to analyzing the whole population. It is worth noting that population is either infinite or finite and sometimes, in the process of analyzing, a sample may be destroyed e.g. testing compression strength in concrete bricks. Therefore, it is advisable that the sample must be representative of the population so that whatever conclusion made based on the sample infer also to the population. This is never absolutely certain hence inductive or statistical inference. The phase of...
6 Pages(1500 words)Research Paper

The Statistics on Abortion in California

... Abortion Introduction Abortion is defined as the termination of pregnancy before the child is born or before the child canbe in a position to live independently outside the mother’s womb (Lanier 14). An abortion that occurs naturally before a pregnancy reaches 24 weeks is referred to as a miscarriage. However, abortion can also be induced. Induced abortion can be prescribed by the doctor in case there is a medical risk to the mother, or it can be a decision by the mother due to their own reasons (Lanier 17). There are different laws of abortion depending on the country or state that one lives in. This paper will focus on abortion in California. The paper will use the statistics on abortion in California to prove that abortion...
6 Pages(1500 words)Term Paper

Human Development Index in Statistics

...-dignity and cultural liberty (Anon., 2008). Human capital plays a vital role in development of a country this is brought about by making meaningful investment in improving health of its citizens, thus increasing well-being of citizen’s increases the life expectancy. Increase in knowledge of its citizens empowers the citizens earns a decent living and this variable is measured by the adult literacy rates, basic education (both primary and secondary) and tertiary level of enrolment. GDP is often used to evaluate the nation state, HDI was first developed in 1990 to help to understand the simple matrix of basic human well-being. The composite index is widely used world-wide by government statistics its release and publication generates a lot...
6 Pages(1500 words)Coursework
sponsored ads
We use cookies to create the best experience for you. Keep on browsing if you are OK with that, or find out how to manage cookies.

Let us find you another Assignment on topic Descriptive statistics/inferential statistics for FREE!

Contact Us