Asthma - Essay Example

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Asthma is a result of deregulated immunological condition in respiratory mucosa; the condition is gaining prevalence across the globe and shows drastic augmentation since 1970s. It is reported that in 2009, 300 million people were influenced worldwide with asthma and there were 250,000 deaths reported due to asthma in 2009…
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Download file to see previous pages Industrialization has not only influenced lifestyles, environmental changes but also predisposed alteration in genes as individuals are now exposed to numerous environmental agents encompassing tobacco, smoke, pollen etc (Gilmour et al., 2006). These factors contributed to the augmented frequency of asthma.
According to Umetsu and Dekruyff (2006), numerous research studies reveal that avid T-helper 2 (Th2)- driven responses results in asthma proliferation. CD4+ T cells making Th2 cytokines play an imperative role in lungs of asthma patients. The chief reason is interleukin-4 (IL-4) and IL-13 augments the level of (immunoglobulin E) IgE whereas IL-4, IL-9 and IL-10 augment mast cell proliferation, IL-5 enhances eosinophil accretion while IL-9 and IL-13 directly cause mucus hyper-secretion and airway hyperactivity (Umetsu and Dekruyff, 2006).
These studies highlight the fact that allergy and asthma are compound genetic attributes, however in the proliferation of asthma numerous environmental factors encompassing allergens and pollutants play an imperative role. These act as stimulating factors and trigger genes to influence the propagation of asthma. It is evident that every individual is exposed to the allergens and other triggering agents but the condition of asthma is observed only in some sensitive individuals, underlining the importance of interaction between environmental and genetic factors in the development of asthma condition. Other preventive mechanism involves immunological factors that play the necessary role in preventing allergic and asthma condition needs further exploration (Umetsu and Dekruyff, 2006). Signs & Symptoms Coughing, wheezing, congestion or tightness in chest and difficulty in breathing or shortness of breath. Etiology According to Yeatts et al., (2006), reports are available displaying numerous windows of exposure present the onset of asthma condition. These conditions may be witnessed right from the fetal stage in utero condition, which is directly influenced by the timing of T-cell memory programming as well as genetic predispositions to such conditions especially in case of atopic parents because of underdeveloped immune system of the fetus. Maternal smoking (includes nicotine and carbon monoxide which diminishes blood cytokine levels, stiffens the uteroplacental circulation and augments the discharge of catecholamines, a direct implication on fetal breathing movements), consumption of alcohol during pregnancy drastically influence the development of asthma, followed by the condition of obstetric complications and elective cesarean section. Asthma during childhood is attributed in 80% of the cases to genetic susceptibility where males show 2-4 times greater frequency as compared to the females. In adults asthma is attributed to the environmental conditions, lifestyle, smoking habit and occupational hazard. As the age progresses exposure to environmental conditions and also occupational hazard increases which may augment the chances of asthma proliferation (Yeatts et al., 2006). According to Khetsuriani et al, (2008), there is a relationship between human rhinovirus (HRV) and asthma. Molecular characterization methodology was adopted in the study to examine HRVs in asthma cases. ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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