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It is bothersome for immunocompromised patients.
MRSA gains entry into the body through these lesions on the skin and can spread to other organs too. Once it gains entry into the internal organs the condition may worsen and symptoms like, fever, chills, reduction in blood pressure, pain in joints could be witnessed, further, headaches, shortness of breath may result. Under grave conditions rashes appear all through the body and a medical emergency occurs. The condition may lead to endocarditis, necrotizing fasciitis, sepsis, osteomyelitis all these conditions may turn out to be fatal.
Tracing the history, it was discovered in 1961 in UK. Later, in 1981, it come into notice in USA amongst the drug abusers or those who were taking medications through intravenous routes. It is because of its terrifying nature it is also referred as “super bug” in medical science. With time the bacterium has gained resistance over different antibiotics and thus has emerged as ferocious disease causing organism.
Records state that the number of cases are enhancing at a rapid pace. According to published reports by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), 127,000 cases were reported in 1999 while in 2005 the number augmented to 278,000, moreover the death toll also enhanced from 11,000 to 17,000. Further it was estimated that 94,360 deaths were due to MRSA infection, of these 18,650 were due to hospitalizations in the year 2005 (Klein, 2007). The statistics suggests that MRSA is responsible for greater number of deaths per year in USA as compared to the deaths caused by AIDS (Stein, 2007). Based on the studies, MRSA has been categorized as Community Acquired MRSA (CA-MRSA) or Healthcare Associated MRSA (HA-MRSA).
1. MRSA is a painful condition; individuals with compromised immune system may get affected at a rapid pace as compared to those with enhanced immunity. It is observed that consumption of junk food or food items poor in
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This review contained literature based on a particular disease, MRSA which was described below. Literature that contained certain types of patients were excluded from this study for consistency purposes. This included studies that involved patients from an area other than ICU, surgical patients, and pediatric patients.
Surgical site infections account for 15% of all the Hospital Acquired infections. Hospital based surveillance programs for control and prevention of SSI’s need to be developed. Pharmacologic treatment of infection depends upon the etiology, due to increase antimicrobial resistance antibiotics should be used logically.
It is examined that Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a widespread basis of illness in hospital settings. The severity is due to its multi-drug resistant nature, also known as multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus, as it is the strain that has developed resistance to beta-lactam as well as cephalosporin group of antibiotics.
When it penetrates a break in the surface, it induces an immune response that involves hydrogen peroxide and nitric oxide. For example, when it reaches the gut, it induces what is clinically referred to as enterocolitis, or infection of the digestive tract (Suzuki, 1994).
S. aureus has a very vast and major disease spectrum which includes skin and soft tissue infections, osteomyelitis, sepsis, muscle and visceral abscesses, pleural empyema, bloodstream infections, endocarditis and toxin-mediated syndromes such as scalded-skin syndrome and toxic shock syndrome and food poisoning (Crossley et al 272).
According to the author of the text, the reason for MRSA being a high risk and high alert pathogen is that this strain of S. aureus is resistant to antibiotics, especially beta-lactam antibiotics such as oxacillin, amoxicillin, penicillin, and methicillin. Additionally, MRSA is responsible for causing severe problems such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, and surgical site infections.