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Procedural programming languages are those that follow the procedural paradigm for programming as is evident. The procedural approach basically guides to transform processes into procedure. First the processes are identified, and then they are broken down into smaller processes which finally shape into procedures. There are several limitations in the procedural approach like extension and re-usability of code is quite limited because of its nature as compared to the object oriented approach, where objects can be reused, updated and redesigned without having adverse effects on overall system functionality. Furthermore, code management also becomes challenging because of its sequential nature.
Several object oriented languages offer program solutions based on the object oriented paradigm like Java, C++, .Net, Ada, SmallTalk etc. One of the most important aspects of OOP languages is dynamic binding or late binding.
OOP offers a rather different approach than procedural approach. The process of abstraction is managed by objects. Every process will be broken into inter object interactions. OOP languages supports objects, classes, instances, method, message, inheritance, subtype principle etc (Aaby Pg. 968). Class inheritance allows the member attributes and functions of one class to be used as if they were members of a second class. Inheritance is one of the primary characteristics of OO programing (Lippman, Pg. 391). In OOP methodology a system basically consists on interactions of objects and each object has to perform its own responsibility after that the responsibility is delegated to other objects. This delegation of responsibility is through the messages. In OOP methodology the system analysis and design consists of the following steps:
Object definition or classes basically describe the objects. The class or object definition consist of properties/ attributes
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Object oriented programming is mainly compromised of objects which are then used along the program implementation. Object oriented may also refer to a programming method that combines data and instructions into a self-sufficient object. (Castagna 1997, p113.) Object oriented programming is essentially based on four major distinguishing features namely: abstraction, encapsulation, inheritance, and polymorphism.
Introduction Transitioning the existing information system paradigms of both companies into object oriented paradigms using Object Oriented System Engineering would help both companies align their individual information services in a smoother and more efficient manner while maintaining their individual customer relationship.
The object oriented programming refers to a form of programming style or paradigm whose foundation is the representation of the programming concepts as objects. Each object in this form of interaction is referred to as an instance of a particular class of objects. In this paradigm, objects are those instances that are used to represent concepts.
As the computer science is an evolving and dynamic discipline, therefore, it is difficult to categorize the already developed computer languages. Some of the authors have classified the computer languages into three (3) categories include: machine level language, assembly level language and high level language (Venit and Drake, 2010).
The main reasons for this were the cost and the lack of knowledge about computers to the common man. In those days development of programming languages were at the initial stages. Because of the cold war the computer rooms were heavily guarded and research on software engineering was not given much importance.
The collections of objects with identical characteristics are collectively known as a class. It is the basis of modularity and structure in an object oriented program. We can design our own classes and create instances of these and then assign them to variables.
Procedures are also known as routines, subroutines, methods, or functions, a technique to group sets of codes with specific purpose into one. The aim of procedural programming is to enable any given procedure within a program to be called at any point throughout the program execution.
Though every language is built on the common ground of communicating “Efficiently and Effectively” with the machine, each language has its own merits and demerits. Some were developed with a specific purpose, some with a specific business application, some for scientific purposes, and some to overcome the demerits of other languages.
However, the history of programming is related and studied more in relation with computing and how the two segments of the technology industry, computer hardware and associated programming languages, developed in parallel. The history shows that the evolution has certainly not stopped and newer technologies and tools appear frequently.
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