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policies are divided in two: the state policies that are directly affect the economy (industrial and monetary policies) and government’s social policies that indirectly affect the economy (Pierson 2004, p.80). China is one state that was characterized by capitalism during its transition to a modern economy towards the end of Qing dynasty. The process of modernization was slow and often met with a lot of interruptions.
Capitalism can be defined as the inclination towards a steady accumulation of wealth, this is according to Pirenne. Periodization of capitalism into early, high and late capitalism was made by a German economist, Werner Sombart and late capitalism is referred to as state capitalism and it happened between the period 1880 and the start of imperialism by Lenin (Goody 2004, p.3).
The Qing dynasty dealt with the foreign people using the same methods that they dealt with other Asian countries. The war started in 1839 when Imperial Commissioner Lin Zexu ordered suppression of drug (opium) trade between foreigners and the local merchants. The aim was to take away the control of opium trade from foreigners. He wanted the same control of trade as administrators had in Britain. After several wars with the British, China finally lost and agreed to form more trade concessions with the British. It saw the signing of the 1842 Treaty of Naijing and the treaty was in favor of the British. Defeat in the Opium War lead to the opening of the West into China and brought in a new era of Western Imperialism. The British captured the Guangzhou port and neighboring ports such as the Shanghai port and finally sailed upwards along the Yangzi River to Naijing. Many of the Qing officials committed suicide when they realized that they could not defeat the British. This is because the Qing dynasty had no enough armies and was lacking funds (Ebrey, Palais and Walthall 2008, p.298). Before the Opium War, the Europeans were allowed to trade at only one part of China, at the port
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The western threats were no more than mere external adversaries that a state had to face very usually during the early 20th century in the Asia Pacific region. Most historians agree that if the dynasty were free of the internal corruptions and conflicts, the history of Imperial China under the Qing Dynasty would have been written differently, as Mike Stanley says in this regard, “There are many different theories about how the Qing dynasty fell apart, with two major theories as the most commonly believed theories in the world.
The first set of reforms is related with the social order, which was established in Japan throughout that period. The other set of reforms is related to external relations and trade, and the transition to economic seclusion in Japan under the Tokugawa dynasty.
The research will attempt to address the primary question framed as follows: How did the first opium war affect foreign relationship in Qing Dynasty China? First of all it is more likely that China would still be under their imperialist and isolationist ideologies, which are irrational and illogical in the contemporary world.
Qing enjoyed territorial consolidation that was visible in Russia’s movement in Asia. During this time, china had advanced technology and commercial economy through its access to markets over the sea and land. This access fostered technological development, industrialization and increased long-distance trade.
According to the paper, most historians agree that if the dynasty were free of the internal corruptions and conflicts, the history of Imperial China under the Qing Dynasty would have been written differently. Indeed the western influences were not the military interferences and threats to the dynasty in its concrete sense.
At home also sex segregation is important. It is used to make sexes cover their occupations as required. A mother is supposed to stay at home, caring for the babies, make sure that there is general cleaning around the compound,
The fact that women were not really considered a member of the family in either of the two families is evident from the fact that the given name of a woman was not recorded on the genealogical record.
Women in the Qing dynasty did not have property rights of their own. They
During the empire rulings, traditional rituals and practices were common among Chinese communities but cultural erosion has been greatly evident especially during the first half of twentieth century. In the nineteenth century, Chinese were seen to uphold and