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Broadly speaking, when a leader motivates his subordinates, it means that one structures the work environment in such a way that their drives and needs are brought into play, instead of being neglected. This environment should be conducive to the satisfaction of those drives and needs so that workers may act in desired ways. However, leadership theories and concepts evaluate the effect of gender in leadership in terms of according the same prerogatives and benefits on equal terms.
In this regard, the objective of the essay is to proffer a critical literature review on the topic of gender in leadership. Relevant research studies on the subject would be cited and significant points would hereby be highlighted, analyzed and evaluated in terms of presenting supporting or opposing viewpoints on gender in leadership.
A study conducted by Christine R. Gedney, Major, USAF, entitled Leadership Effectiveness and Gender aimed to determine a correlationship between leadership effectiveness and gender through secondary sources of authoritative materials while seeking some explanation to her inquiry on identifying “why there is still a considerable absence in top military leadership by female officers” (Gedney, 1999, v). Initially, she provided essential qualities of effective leaders with the objective of indicating that “leadership effectiveness is not gender-specific, but there seem to be many attributes that are found in both males and females that lend themselves to becoming an effective leader” (Gedney, 1999, 2).
Through her discussion of gender in leadership, the revealed that traditional views content a biased view of leaders to predominantly favor men over women. The author cited Kolb as indicating that “when we reviewed this literature we were struck by the prejudice against women. Research has demonstrated that there are
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Human organizations are often described by the metaphor likening them to living organisms, with good reason. Organizations may be contemporary inventions, a ‘fiction of law’ so-to-speak, but they are comprised of human beings individually motivated by their personal goals as much as they are duty-bound to pursue the collective goal.
Implementing an innovative idea can be by the virtue of introducing new technology, new process, new hierarchy or way of operating or even new legislation. This review is to critically examine innovation in governance. Every public sector organization around the world will have its own limitations to invest money, time, increase number of people and allocate resources to a certain innovation project.
Although, there is no universal definition for SMEs and businesses are usually gauged in terms of turnover and number of employees to define their size and nature of business. In United Kingdom a small enterprise is supposed to comprise of maximum 25 employees with a turnover of around ?
The review of literature proceeds to identify the various ways by which transformational leadership impacts on follower outcomes. Finally, commentary shall be given about the transactional leadership perspective from a practical standpoint. Definition and description of transformational leadership, its strengths and weaknesses The originator of the transformational leadership perspective was James MacGregor Burns, in his book Leadership (1978) which he expounded on the contrasting notions of transactional and transformational leadership.
The Eastern terminology contrasts with the Western aspect of creativity because they believe it defines the expression of personal truth or self growing. The Eastern outlook of creativity mainly focuses on discovery. The reason for that is so it is inconceivable for Western cultures to emphasize on harmony and balance.
Not only the organizational structures, hierarchal structure, job description, job autonomy and bureaucracy but also the social structure, social interactions informal interactions proved the same (Ridgeway, pp. 29-33, 1992). Not only in India but also in many countries of
This leads to a discussion of the need for a new paradigm of leadership. Three categories of latest leadership models and thinking are then described: (1) authentic and servant leadership, which are adaptations of transformational leadership, (2) collective and complexity
Promotions at work to achieve the top-most positions at places of work seem elusive for majority of women, even if academic qualifications no longer act as a hindrance. Many factors appear to block the ascendance of women
Wharam (2009) & Singh (2006) describe emotional intelligence as a must have attribute for the leaders of an organization or any project. Emotional intelligence allows a leader to understand its people and how to extract