Clearly, the act of not recruiting Graham due to the reasons provided, is an unlawful act, therefore a claim can be brought forward. The next step is to decide upon the type of claim that might be pursued…
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The test for less favourable treatment is clearly an objective one and the question that is to be asked is whether the complainant would have been treated differently more favourably had it not been for his sex. Thus, the tribunal must ask what the ‘conscious or subconscious reason for treating the claimant less favourably was’ (Nagarajan v. London Regional Transport)1. The decision of less favourable treatment is for the tribunal to decide and it is not a difficult one.
In order to determine less favourable treatment, a comparison with an actual or hypothetical comparator is to be made, however it is necessary that the relevant circumstances of the complainant and the comparative group are same or not materially different. Thus, in Shamoon v Chief Constable of the Royal Ulster Constabulary2, it was stated that
From s.63A and Igen v Wong3 it is clear that the evidential burden to show facts from which Employment Tribunal can conclude that the employer has committed an act of discrimination and if such burden is met then the legal burden shifts to the employer who has to show that the reason for the treatment was not related in any way with claimant’s sex. Thus, if an inadequate explanation is provided the Employment Tribunal must fina that the employer committed an act of unlawful discrimination.
In the current scenario it is quite evident that Graham has received less favourable treatment on the ground of his sex and this is clear from what has been said by IRU in their reason for rejecting Graham. Furthermore, if a hypothetical comparator is drawn then in the same circumstances a woman would have received more favourable treatment and thus direct discrimination is established.
The remedies that might be available to Graham are a recommendation that IRU should take action so as to reduce the effect of the discrimination. Further, he could receive compensation which could include pecuniary losses if any and injury to feelings.
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However, chapter 1 of Part 2 of the Section 4 of Equality Act 2010 referred to some “protected characteristics” that are basis for the interpretation of the Act. Two of these protected characteristics that would be discussed here are; (i) sex and (ii) race (Ruebain et al, 2010; The National Archives, 2010).
Kennedy and his assassination made the passage of this act successful. The Civil Rights Act of 1964 made racial discrimination based on colour, race, or national origin in public places illegal and ensures equal employment opportunities to workers. This act also addresses the issues on denial of voting rights for African Americans and enforces uniform standards for the right to vote (1964 Civil Rights Act, n.d.).
Section 1 part 2 of the same act denotes that the statement must be in written form, and an employer can give such kind of a statement in installments. When he does this, he should not take more than two months to dispense all the particulars of the contract to the employee (Cicero and Zetzel, 1999).
There are issues that arise in the course of business that in some cases work against the employees and sometimes the employers. For continued business operations, mechanisms are therefore needed to be put in place to control and govern the relationship between the two parties in ensuring that the world economy and the living standards of individuals are not affected.
Although a boutique caters to the young consumer, there is no justification for not hiring older people on that ground. Secondly, she is also deprived employment due to her gender history, which is again
dom has been and continues to be a country of migration with a large existence of multiple ethnic communities which is what makes it a multi cultural nation. However such diversity in the composition of its population has also over the years led rise to cases of discrimination
sulted in less favourable treatment of one sex, or the less favourable treatment would not have occurred but for the complainant’s sex, it would constitute direct discrimination3.
With regard to indirect discrimination, this is discrimination against a particular group sexual
The company itself has its own set of liabilities to third parties as well as its own rights. This, potentially, results in a complicated situation when it comes to determining the relative rights and liabilities of the shareholders and of the
Many jurisdictions in this regard have come up with regimes of laws to protect these vulnerable groups in terms of employment, labor and anti- discrimination laws. “Employment discrimination law refers to those laws that protect
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