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Renin-angiotensin system generates Angiotensin II that decreases the afferent arteriolar radius. The effect of angiotensin is mediated by calcium mobilization. To compensate for decreased afferent diameter, efferent arteriolar diameters is decreased to a greater extent so that GFR remains almost unaltered. Nor-epinephrine also decreases the afferent arteriolar diameter. A number of physiological conditions like increased potassium concentration constricts (decreases radius) the afferent arterioles – this also happens in diabetic patients. The vasodilation of the afferent arterioles, on the other hand, occurs in response to nitric oxide (NO) secreted by the endothelium.
2. How could you adjust the afferent or efferent radius to compensate for the effect of the reduced pressure on glomerular filtration rate and urine volume? Use the simulation to determine your answer.
Due to the urinary obstruction (closed valve) the intra-glomerular pressure (back pressure) prevents any filtration to occur. There is no difference in the blood pressure and the intra-glomerular pressure and hence no urinary output.
Filtration function of kidney is zero so kidney is non-functional. It may however be noted that other (endocrine) functions of kidney like synthesis of erythropoietin and metabolism in the renal parenchyma would not stop.
Increasing the interstitial concentration of solutes, the reabsorption of solutes decreases as the movement of the solutes is dependent upon the concentration gradient between the interstitial fluid and the lumen of nephrons. In the presence of ADH water moves from the region of low concentration (lumen) to that with higher conetration (interstitial fluid) and hence urine becomes concentrated.
The diabetic patient’s urine contains a lot of glucose. It is due to the higher plasma concentration of glucose (because cells are not able to take up glucose in
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The only prominent sign of acute renal failure is decreased production of urine. There are basically 3 types of ARF and they are: prerenal, intrinsic and post renal. In prerenal, the nephrons are structural intact and ARF occurs because of adaptive response to volume depletion that is severe enough to cause hypotension.
The experimental values with respect to tidal volume, vital capacity, inspiratory capacity, inspiratory reserve volume, expiratory reserve volume and the total lung capacity were similar to the personal predicted values. Residual volume and Functional Residual Capacity were much higher as compared to the predicted values.
Stroke volume (SV) is the amount of blood being pumped by the heart per each contraction, which is about 70mL in a resting man of average size in supine position (Ganong, 2003). Cardiac output (CO) is the amount of blood ejected by the heart per minute, defined in the equation CO = SV x HR.
Similarly, state of mind will not be affected by whether the person had knowledge of words earlier. While reading, the knowledge matters as it is easier to read the words that a person is already acquainted with.
a) No. Since we interviewed only brown eyed people, it only proves that brown eyed people believe in UFOs.
(American Heart Association, 2008) Body composition tests help us scrutinize and analyze if our body compositions, especially body fats, are at normal and healthy levels. A test such as the blood lactate measurement is used by sport scientists, coaches and athletes to accurately
In addition, introductions section provides hypothetical proposition of each experiment together with brief description of procedures involved. Methodology section provides detailed description of procedures and steps employed in carrying out
The pressure is sensed via mechanical elements, for example, the shells, plates, and tubes designed or constructed for deflection when pressure is applied; mechanism for the conversion of pressure into physical