Curtain wall, as the name implies, is a non-structural system of external finishing of a building, that is not meant to support the structural load, but contributes in minimizing the overall load on the foundations by replacing the weight of non-load bearing external walls with…
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“The earliest curtain wall appeared in 1918 when new steel frame and fenestration technology afforded this liberation of skin from structure.” (Weber and Thompson, 2003, para. 3). However, the same report by (Weber and Thompson, 2003, para. 6) mentions that the concept of curtain walls was not widely employed in the construction of high rise buildings until 1950, when sufficient insulating and air treatment methods, necessary to counteract the high speed winds the curtain-walled building was subjected to, had been unveiled. In the beginning, the curtain wall system was made up of steel frames and other materials. Nowadays, there is a wide range of materials which are used in the formation of the curtain walls that include but are not limited to glass, marble, stone and other metals. Today, glass is used more commonly in combination with the aluminium frames, which offers additional thermal benefits for the structure. Unlike the conventional system in which load of the structure is fundamentally carried by the perimetric walls of a building, the curtain walled buildings rely upon the structural members of the framed structure that carry an additional weight of the curtain wall.
Use of curtain wall in the structures causes considerable reduction in the total load of the structure. Its self weight is much lesser than the conventional non-load bearing walls that were used in place of curtain walls, once the concept was not very common. Besides, any wind pressure that the curtain wall is subjected to is transferred to the structural members, namely the concrete slabs and columns that the curtain wall is connected to and taken down to the foundations.
The curtain wall essentially acts like a shield against the weather. It serves to protect the building against the wind pressure and other environmental factors that can be detrimental to the
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In Nigeria large international construction companies have undertaken railway construction project (Okeola 2009). Despite this, the railway projects undertaken in this country have been failing making the country unable to improve its railway network. We have several kilometers of uncompleted railway line that is an evidence of failed railway construction projects.
The building codes and standard are developed to give engineers and designers a homogeneous line of action to every problem they face in the field. The basis of almost all the standards lies in, the need that is created when a field engineer faces a problem or failure is observed and later this is reported to design team.
There are many reasons or sources which can cause a collapse and it is of prime importance that the structure should be safe against any possible combination of loading, whether it’s the live, dead , wind, earthquake or fire, the building must resist it at all cost.
According to the report failure of a construction project can be defined as, the act of falling short, being deficient, or lacking; nonattainment or nonsuccess; nonperformance, neglect, omission; bankruptcy; and loss of vigor or strength”. Failures of construction projects can be divided into two basic categories; procedural failures and technical failures.
Undeniably, this would mean the involvement of different issues and procedures of planning that are supposed to be prepared and completed before, during and after the building of the structure.
Close attention is supposed to be given to the legalities of the matter.
The hydraulic jacks are lifted on the top of each column, and are secured in position with the help of a pinning mechanism. They pick the slabs up using the lifting rods which are connected with the lifting collars, that
ld Collapse, in Willow Island, West Virginia in April 1978, where premature loading of cast-in-place concrete resulted in loss of life for 51 construction workers and the Rosemont Horizon Arena, Chicago in august 1979, where Glue-laminated timber roof arches spanning 89 metres
They have a wide range of shapes and functions, and have been modified throughout history for quite a number of factors, from building materials available, to weather conditions, to risk factors, to land prices,
The destruction of this wall which was almost instantaneous as its creation got celebrated in the whole world. The construction of the first barrier took place on the night of 12th August 1961. This was after Walter Ulbricht, the East German
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