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Even with the children who suffer the extreme form of this heart defect. The success rate has been very encouraging.
The said infant suffered from Hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) which is an extension of congenital heart disease. It is the fourth most common type of congenital cardiac defect. It basically is a functional signal ventricle due to the congenital heart. HLHS is characterized by a multiple abnormalities related to heart including steosis or atresia of ventricular inflow and outflow tracts of both the left side (Report of the New England Regional Infant Cardiac Program, 1980). In the 1980’s most of the infants died within the first month of their birth but since then due to various medical advancements and the advent of Norwood procedure, the survival rate has risen a great deal (Kirklin et al. 1980).
The two treatments of the congenital heart being currently offered are either multi stages surgical palliation or the orthotopic cardiac transplantation. The mortality rate of the HLHS is considerably higher than other defects occurring due to the congenital heart disease. Additionally there is not much knowledge and information about the long-term follow-up related to the HLHS survivors (Caplan et al. 1996).
The infants who are born with this disease are usually born on time and have relatively normal birth weight. It has also been researched that extra cardiac and malformationsare is present in about 2.3% of them (Report of the New England Regional Infant Cardiac Program). It has also been noticed that its occurrence is more in boys than in girls. Fortunately the chances of this disease being present in the siblings are only 0.5% of the times and only 2.2% for other extension of congenital heart disease (Wernovsky, Bove, 1998). The chances of survival post the cardinal surgery has been increased to 95% now.
Unfortunately the exact cause of the HLHS has yet
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According to the data presented by the Paediatric Intensive Care Audit Network in its Annual Report, there are 52,337 paediatric intensive care admissions aged below 16 years of age to 29 National Health Services trusts and health authorities, over the three year period from January 2008 to December 2010 (Paediatric Intensive Care Audit Network, 2011).
Medications prescribed at the time of discharge were oral clopidgrel, aspirin, metoprolol, perindopril and atorvastatin as she had past history of hypertension coupled with diabetes type II. The woman had a body mass index of 35 which is considered as obese according to NIH (National Institute of Health, United States) (NIH Website).
This is achieved through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems; including physical, psychosocial and spiritual problems. More often this approach doesn’t involve use of medicine to relieve pain but focuses on other aspects of treatment that connect with the mind, spirit and the physical aspects of the patients and their families (WHO, 2011).
Developmental care is defined as the strategies used in neonatal care units to enable in reduction of the level of stress that a premature infant goes through (Hamilton, Moore and Naylor, 2008, p. 190). According to Abbott and Israel (2008, p. 80), neonatal intensive care units organisation has effects on the development an infant’s brain and its organisation.
However, nurses from various countries complain that most hospitals do not have enough nurses. Recent research show that the number of nurses employed to give quality services to a patient has decreased from 98% to 51%. The lack of nurses is also being experienced in developed countries.
Caregivers are required to employ evidence-based techniques in delivering care to people to ensure for their well being. This has necessitated for them to learn the nature of certain conditions that affect human beings. This paper discusses the issues that relate to a patient suffering from Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD).
Regardless of the specific practice model they follow, first and foremost nurses must adhere to the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC, 2004) code of professional conduct: standards for conduct, performance and ethics.
The challenge researcher wants to solve is that several (3) nurses who have each worked there for 15 years do not want to change their 8-hour schedules because they have scheduled various activities on their days off. However, most of the other nurses (12) want to work 12-hour shifts so that they can spend more time with their families.
Paediatric ICU nurses, who should work hand-in-hand with the other members of the medical team, are the primary caregivers and advocate of the babies and children inside the unit. They are trained intensively to perform interventions and assume roles that are uncommon in the