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On 29 December 1989, the Nikkei peaked at 38, 916 after a five year return of 237%. The rate in June of 2008 was at 14, 354 which is a startling 63% lower than the 1989 figure (Harrison 2008). According to the International Monetary Fund (2006), Japan was experiencing recovery from its previous declining position, but by 2009, the International Monetary fund showed recognition that the economic downturn of 2008 had stifled progress and the deflation was still a pervasive issue. As Shown in the graph examples in figure 1, both the real estate market and the stock market have shown steady deflationary trends since 1990.
There have been a series of attempts to remedy the problem of deflation in Japan. These attempts include fiscal expansion, reduction of interest rates, Yen depreciation, and finally a zero interest rate program followed by a quantitative expansion program (Greenwood 2010). Unfortunately, these programs have all been ineffective in providing relief from the ongoing deflationary period. Greenwood (2010) states that the lack of recovery is due to poor political and economic leadership, an unwillingness to adopt unorthodox strategies, mistakes at the technical level, and the appearance of a “balance sheet recession”.
An expansionary fiscal policy adopted by a government is marked by measures that are taken in order to create increased economic stabilization through governmental policies intended to create economic stimulus. In 1981, Yasuhiro Nakisone, Prime Minister of Japan, instituted polices that were stringent for the Japanese economy. However, by 1986, Naksone believed that these policies would require some adjustment in order to avert the looming crisis. A private advisory group headed by Bank of Japan Chairman Maekawa Haruo and commissioned by Nakisone submitted a report commonly referred to as the Maekawa Report which states that the Japanese economic policies and
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