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The types of cancer are more than 100 because there are more than 100 different types of cells in the body of an organism, for example skin cancer, lungs cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer etc (Robbins et al 2005).
Under microscope, cancer cells show different structural characteristics because of which they can be differentiated from the normal cells. They are pleomorphic in nature, which means that they have a tendency to have a variable size and shape than the normal cells. The cancer cells have different size and different shapes. Most of the cancer cells have large nuclei from the surrounding normal tissue cells and the nuclei of the cancerous cells contain abnormal number of chromosomes, a condition known as aneuploidy. The aneuploidy may occur due to mutation or deletion of chromosome or any other reason. The cell membrane of the cancer cells produces some sort of surface enzymes which have the ability to damage the basement membrane of tissues, with the help of which the cancer spreads more easily to the surrounding non-cancerous cells and damages them too. The cancer cells show increased rate of mitosis, which is the process of the reproduction of the new cells and hence the cancer spreads to the surroundings. The cancer cells have differences in metabolism in comparison to normal cells, as their metabolism is more anaerobic and therefore they may even combat hypoxic conditions. (Trahan 2001 & Robbins et al 2005)
Chromosomal rearrangements have been found to be existing in many forms of cancers such as leukumias and lymhpomas. It is believed that chromosomal instability is a great cause for the onset of a certain type of cancer. Chromosomal rearrangements are believed to have an effect on the protooncogenes. Translocation and inversion of a chromosome in particular have significant effect on the protooncogenes. Translocation is particularly important when studying about the chromosomal rearrangements leading to cancer. Translocations have
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The condition affects Oculocutaneous albinism is categorized into 4 different types (Types I, Type II, Type III and Type IV) and affects people from different ethnic groups as well as from different geographical regions. Types I and II are most common. Americans and African Americans suffer mostly from Type II, while Type III is prevalent among South Africans and Type IV is primarily found among Japanese and Koreans.
One would assume that Bob's father would be DD, with no gene for the disease. However, if his mother was Dd, and his father was DD, there is no probable chance or explanation for how Bob contracted the disease. The only possibility is that somehow Bob's father has the recessive trait and that got passed with the recessive trait from his mother to make Bob dd.
In order for such a procedure to be done, two RAD51 targeting constructs that contained either neomycin or blasticidin first had to be prepared. Once these targeting constructs were prepared, the RAD51 neo constructs were transpected into DT40 cells, and heterozygous clones were isolated for the RAD51 gene.
Here a gene could be cut into small fragments, and a fragment from another gene having a different make up, can be inserted between the cut fragments, and then reattached together to form a completely new gene. There are many
The modification enables the plants and animals to become stronger and more resistant to diseases. However, recently, scientists have started modifying the genes of human beings. The process gives rise to human beings who have similar genetic make-ups in their bodies. This
Each gene codes for a specific protein in the body by specifying the order that the amino acids needs to be joined together. The function of the DNA in the body is carrying genetic code of information that determines the characteristics of a living thing but it is