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BMS3038: Human and Medical Genetics 2 questions - Essay Example

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Cancer is commonly used for all types of malignant tumors, which is the swelling of any tissue of the body caused by inflammation, which are studied…
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BMS3038: Human and Medical Genetics 2 questions
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BMS3038: Human and Medical Genetics 2 questions

Download file to see previous pages... The types of cancer are more than 100 because there are more than 100 different types of cells in the body of an organism, for example skin cancer, lungs cancer, prostate cancer and breast cancer etc (Robbins et al 2005).
Under microscope, cancer cells show different structural characteristics because of which they can be differentiated from the normal cells. They are pleomorphic in nature, which means that they have a tendency to have a variable size and shape than the normal cells. The cancer cells have different size and different shapes. Most of the cancer cells have large nuclei from the surrounding normal tissue cells and the nuclei of the cancerous cells contain abnormal number of chromosomes, a condition known as aneuploidy. The aneuploidy may occur due to mutation or deletion of chromosome or any other reason. The cell membrane of the cancer cells produces some sort of surface enzymes which have the ability to damage the basement membrane of tissues, with the help of which the cancer spreads more easily to the surrounding non-cancerous cells and damages them too. The cancer cells show increased rate of mitosis, which is the process of the reproduction of the new cells and hence the cancer spreads to the surroundings. The cancer cells have differences in metabolism in comparison to normal cells, as their metabolism is more anaerobic and therefore they may even combat hypoxic conditions. (Trahan 2001 & Robbins et al 2005)
Chromosomal rearrangements have been found to be existing in many forms of cancers such as leukumias and lymhpomas. It is believed that chromosomal instability is a great cause for the onset of a certain type of cancer. Chromosomal rearrangements are believed to have an effect on the protooncogenes. Translocation and inversion of a chromosome in particular have significant effect on the protooncogenes. Translocation is particularly important when studying about the chromosomal rearrangements leading to cancer. Translocations have ...Download file to see next pagesRead More
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