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The chemical reactions thus require enzymes to speed up their reaction. Most of the enzymes require metallic entities to help them function to their full capacity. Metallic ions like Zinc and Magnesium provide biological enzymes with good acid capability. Thus, the enzymes that are used for acid base reactions use magnesium and zinc at their active centers. In addition, inorganic compounds like sodium and potassium are required by living organism to create a potential difference across cell membrane. Unequal distribution of sodium and potassium ions across cell membrane help initiate an action potential.
Hemoglobin is an iron containing oxygen transport metalloprotein that is found in the red blood cells of vertebras (Anthea, Human Biology And Health). Its structure exhibits characteristics of both quaternary and tertiary structures of protein (Kessel, 122 Print). Most amino acids present in the hemoglobin are alpha helices and are joined together by non-helical structures. Hydrogen bonds present in the helical structure stabilize the helical units and give hemoglobin molecule its specific shape (Hemoglobin Tutorial, University of Massachusetts Amherst) The hemoglobin molecule has a protein part globin to which a small iron containing group heme. The heme consists of a charged iron ion that is contained in a heterocyclic ring. This heterocyclic ring is known as porphyrin and it consists of four pyrrole molecules linked together with iron bound in the center (Hemoglobin-School of Chemistry, Bristol University, ). The iron ion is the oxygen-binding site of hemoglobin. The iron ion coordinates with four molecules of nitrogen. The iron ion is strongly bound to the protein via imidazole ring of the F8 histidine residue below porphyrin ring. A sixth position bind oxygen reversibly by coordinate bond to complete the octahedral group of six ligands (Wiki Premed,
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The tourism industry is one of the best resources when it comes to the passengers of the airline sector. In Europe, France operates the largest market share when it comes to tourism, with over 76 million tourists as international arrivals the huge number of tourists in the region create a lucrative business opportunity for investments.
(Speck et al, 1993, p.39, 43). Each of them contains two respiratory centers. There are total four respiratory centers in the brainstem; Inspiratory center, Expiratory center, Pneumotaxic center and Apneustic center. Cerebral cortex provides behavioral control, whereas, brainstem provides an autonomic control for respiration.
Endothermic animals (warm blooded animals) include all mammals and birds. Endothermic animals are capable of sustaining a constant body temperature over a comparatively broad range of ambient temperature through thermoregulation attained via proportional modulation of endogenous metabolic heat production.
Since oxygen is a gas, the pressure at which it is available is almost as important as its very presence in a given situation.
Living cells need oxygen all the time but have no mechanism to store it (Treacher, and Leach, 1998). Most cells, especially those of the human brain, which controls life processes, cannot survive for more than a few minutes without a continuous supply of oxygen at the right pressure.
Each nitrogenous base is connected to a molecule of deoxyribose sugar to form a nucleoside. Each nucleoside is joined to a phosphate group to form a nucleotide. Repeating units of nucleotides form DNA. The structure of DNA is double helix. The edges on the outer side are formed by alternating phosphate groups and deoxyribose sugar molecules.
These unique properties of water result from the ways in which individual H2O molecules interact with each other.Water is the chemical substance with chemical formula H2O: one molecule of water has two hydrogen atoms covalently bonded to a single oxygen atom
(c) Chloroplasts: The chloroplasts are special pigments that are designed for trapping the sun's energy and converting substrates absorbed from the soil into food for the plant. This feature is absent in the animal cell.
In the mitochondria , the prokaryotic cells received organic and inorganic substances from the host and the host increased ATP output increased cellular efficiency.
Again, the fatty acids, during the process of fatty acid catabolism, the fatty acids are broken down into both mitochondria and peroxisomes. The result of the process of beta oxidation or fatty acid breakdown is the generating of Acetyl-CoA that happens to be the entry molecule for the Krebs cycle.
The generated energy is used to carry out important functions including growth and movement in animals. Life of every structural and functional unit of any life form depends upon the availability and utilization of oxygen.
Keeping in view