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The outermost layer of blood vessels is made up of connective tissue. The elastin and collagen fibers in this outermost layer allow the blood vessels to stretch and recoil, and absorb tensile stress, respectively. The middle layer contains smooth muscle fibers and extracellular matrix, which also contains collagen and elastion. Finally, the innermost endothelial layer is a single layer of flattened cells that minimizes resistance to blood flow (Campbell and Reece, 2002, p. 877). Capillaries, which are deep-seated in tissues, have thin walls to allow supplies delivered by arterial blood to diffuse to the surrounding tissues, and at the same time, to permit cellular wastes to dissolve into the blood that will subsequently go through the veins. Once in the veins, the blood is now deoxygenated. The veins lead to the kidneys and lungs where wastes and carbon dioxide are released, respectively. Upon entering the lungs, the blood is again infused with oxygen to be delivered to the systemic tissues of the body. Because of their function, arteries are thickened and more muscular than veins and capillaries. The thick muscles allow them to absorb a lot of tensile stress the pressure from the oxygenated blood pumped by the heart brings. When the heart contracts (systole) and blood flows through the arteries, the narrow openings of the artery into the arterioles leading to the capillaries temporarily traps blood inside the vessels, applying pressure onto the arterial walls. When the heart relaxes, the elastic arterial walls relax back to their initial diameter, pushing the blood into the arterioles (diastole). However, the heart contracts again before blood can completely flow out of the arteries Campbell and Reece, 2002, p. 878-879). The thickness of arterial walls is a function of increased number and or activity of myocytes, endothelial cells, and connective tissues comprising the blood vessels. For example, shear stress brought about by increased blood flow velocity
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According to WHO, people aged over 60 is faster than the other age groups. Within the year 2000 and 2050 people who belong to the age 60 and above is expected to rise from 600 million to 2 billion. This global phenomenon of aging is possible because of technological and healthcare advancement this past century.
It is evidently clear from the discussion that hypertension is one of the leading reasons for the occurrence of several health problems such as cardiovascular disorders, brain and kidney diseases. The genetic makeup of the individual, physiological, psychological and environmental factors have been associated with the condition.
On the other hand, the intense effects are not well established. Cardiovascular disease is by and large an indicative classification that consists of a number of complications of the heart and the blood circulatory system. It is evident that cardiovascular complications are the significant health problems and the central cause of mortality rates in developed nations.
The medical fraternity and nurses in particular can effectively contribute towards patient care through proper clinical interventions and lifestyle changes that would promote the health of the patients. Nurses play a key role in the diagnosis, treatment, intervention and prevention of arterial hypertension in patients.
In the present case it has been already defined that for the baseline measures there should be used the 6 minutes shuttle walk test for the chosen patient. The question left to be answered is whether the use of various airway clearance techniques will bring the desired effects, whether the use of the PEP mask is highly effective in treating bronchiectasis and what technical means should be implemented for better compliance of the developed exercise program.
But what of aging gracefully
In the past fifteen years of my life I have learned that while I wish I still had the body of my youth, I am happy to have my mind and wisdom intact. I have patterned myself after people I admire for most of my life and when I discovered that people younger than me looked up to me in the same way I looked up to the special older people of my life, I felt a sense of arrival at something.
The results of the current investigation show that exercise does substantially increase pulse rate. However, this is applicable only for those who are healthy, are not taking in stimulants, are non-smokers, and do not suffer from any other condition which may affect pulse rate.
And this disease call silent killer because patients have not any symptoms related to their high Bp. However, Jonathan K. Ehrman stated that Headache is popular considered a symptom of hypertension also he mentioned dizziness and easy fatigability can occurred. Absolute
Earlier, CTA technology was able to image only a portion of the peripheral arterial tree. Later, the multi-detector row CT (MDCT) technology evolved. In 1998, with the arrival of four-detector row CT (4D-CT), a complete coverage of the lower extremity inflow and runoff arteries with one acquisition using a single-contrast bolus, was possible.
The literatures interact with one another in a complicated manner. By testing and understand the new aging and existing theories, it will be possible in promoting the successful aging.
There are various questions asked about
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