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Everything started in 1988. That year the topic of climate change was more than ever before covered in media, having caused increased public attention to the issue. In the US it was caused by James E. Hansen’s senate speech regarding a threat of global warming. (McCright and Dunlap, 2000: 500) The same year Hansen’s concern was supported by Margaret Thatcher, a Prime Minister of Great Britain at that time, who outlined the possible risks of climate change (Carvalho, 2007: 223-243).
The concept of climate change itself, however, wasn’t new to the world at that time. Climate of the planet has always been changing periodically, making people adjust to colder or hotter environment all the time. Probably everyone has heard about so called ‘ice ages’, when great parts of the planet were covered with ice. At the same time, such cold periods were changed by hot ones, like the Medieval Warm Period (A.D. 1000), when most parts of the planet were experiencing hot and dry weather (National Research Council, 2006: 2).
During the last 2000 years the most significant climate changes were the mentioned above Medieval Climate Anomaly, the Little Ice Age of 1500-1850, and the warm period of the industrial era, which is lasting during the last 100 years (ibid). These climate changes were caused by various factors, including changes in the planet’s orbit, changes in solar activity, and eruptions of volcanoes. (US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009) The current warming of climate, however, is believed to be much intensified by the influence of human activity that has lead to increased levels of greenhouse gasses emissions. Greenhouse gasses, in their turn, are believed to be the cause of raise in average temperatures on the Earth.
David Adam of Guardian outlines that emissions of carbon dioxide produced by human activity are the major cause of the above natural level of greenhouse effect. While before the industrial
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This aspect can be gleaned from the IR theory of Realism, the tenets of which is maximally followed by the states. The evolution and establishment of different states as well as their government setups primarily from the 20th century have led to the formulation of various theories and concepts by renowned thinkers and researchers, which come under the domain of IR.
The researcher examines the concept of citizen diplomacy, which motivates the citizens to get engage in the meaningful dialogue with the world. Citizen diplomacy is based upon the concept that each individual possesses the right and responsibility to participate and help in shaping the relations of his country with the outside world.
The resulting financial structure determines the capacity of the nation state to create a favorable environment for investors. Political interests of nation states are mutually dependent on the economic well-being.International trade is one of the aspects of the global political economy that are prominent with regards to international relations.
These organizations 1have changed international environment in the area of politics (Brown 1995, p. 54). Some international observers have concluded that; states have declined in addressing crucial matters and non-state actors have gained status and influence.
Ulham argues that the untrue picture created by explaining national security in military terms is both dangerous and misleading to the members of the public. He asserts that politicians find it unproblematic to direct the focus of the unsuspecting members of the population towards true or false military risks than on true or false nonmilitary risks.
Due to this understanding of world politics, realism is at the centre of both theoretical and global political disputes, offering a point of reference against which competing ideologies frequently identify themselves thereby making the theory a rhetorical and conceptual axis on which political and analytical debates revolve.
A few important foreign policy cases are taken to support arguments.
To start with, let us take the case of the ongoing war in Iraq and its previous episode in 1991. The aftermath of this war proved to be a big public
endered national policies wholly inadequate as health issues in one state can filter over into another state through the movement of goods, people and animals across borders (Fidler, 1997). Thus diseases such as AIDS, SARS, Ebola, H1N1, hantavirus, avian flu as well as health
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