She needed to somehow convince him to let her take the car to her best friend’s party. She thought if he said no, she could argue her way to using the car. “Dad,” she said sweetly, “I need to use the car tonight to go to…
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The question that ‘Why don’t you love me?’ is an example of this as Marissa is assuming, by the nature of her question, that her father does not love her, asking him why he does not. As Archie (2009) notes, the assumption of the complex question can only be known from the context. Not all cases where something not generally granted is assumed are fallacious because not all such passages involve arguments. Clearly, there is no good way to respond directly to the question being posed, only to identify the presupposition or assumption of the question. A corrected version of this question might be: “If you love me, why won’t you let me use the car.” This corrected version of the question focuses back on the issue of the car, and away from whether or not her father loves her.
This is an example of a straw man, which as Kahane (2005) writes, involves a misrepresentation of an opponent’s position, or a competitor’s product, or goes after a weaker opponent or competitor while ignoring a stronger one. The argument Marissa is using is an
Her Dad looked at her lovingly, “No, Marissa, I don’t think you’re a child. I just don’t think it’s safe for you to take the car to a party.” She snapped, “Because it’s not safe? Well, you better take away our kitchen knives, because they aren’t safe!”
example of a straw man because it misrepresents her opponent’s, her father’s position on the issue. Because the two people know each other well, Marissa can anticipate her father’s objection, which she mischaracterizes to serve her own purposes. Like an advertiser misrepresenting the competition’s products and services (Kahane), Marissa has constructed a false reality in which her opponent makes a bad argument. To correct her mistake, Marissa ought to incorporate the possibility that her father does not think she is a child by starting her sentence with an “if”, like in the following: “If you don’t think I am a child, let me take
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The argument is invalid because the authority is not qualified to provide a credible premise.
We often reference textbooks, research papers, and statistical data to make an appeal to authority. This is appropriate when the author is an expert in his field.
Because of this, my friends avoided me for days. I was too shy to go to school because I know my classmates will just avoid me like my friends. So I decided to skip school and stayed at home.
My mother got
However, this only affirms the fallacy of cause and effect where the wife justifies the need to murder her husband because their daughter Iphigenia was sacrificed to the gods (Aeschylus 12). Additionally,
Although the argument may be appealing because people often love to stick to something traditional since they assume that it may be true because it passed the test of time, I realized the argument was deceptive and rejected it as a fallacy. I particularly
Formal fallacies violate a specified rule of the propositional calculus; for instance, modus ponens. This fallacy implies that better reasoning is required when deriving the conclusion. Informal fallacies are considered invalid due to
The beginning was the question on the existence of God. Personally, I do not believe God exists, and every good that happens to humans is just mere coincidence, and not the power of God. If you pray to God to give you, a car and
In this type of paper, the comparison is between two or more objects, ideas or situations. In a case where the objects are being compared are the same then it will make the argument weak. According to Kirszner and Mandel (p 22, 23) it very key to plan an essay before beginning to write in order to develop strong points to avoid weak points in cases of analogy writing.
Adidas and Nike are sportswear manufacturing companies that design and market shoes, clothes, and other sports items. Therefore, most of their advertisements target people pursuing the sport as a profession or as a hobby. Typically, the firms strive to design innovative products that create a thrilling customer experience.
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