This betalain is the pigment responsible for the color of the beetroot. It is a red- purple pigment. Betalain is present inside the cell and it is protected by the tonoplast. Betalains are water-soluble and exists as internal salts in…
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The cell membrane is made up of phospholipids molecules and proteins.
The phospholipids are present as a bilayer and that acts as the semi permeable membrane. The phospholipid bi-layer is formed because of the hydrophilic and the hydrophobic ends of the phospholipid molecule. The water loving hydrophilic head is present in the inner region of the membrane and the hydrophobic water hating tail region is present on the outer membrane region. This arrangement prevents the polar solutes from moving in and out of the membrane. This arrangement generally allows the passive diffusion of the hydrophobic molecules. The entire membrane is held intact because of the non-covalent interaction of the hydrophobic tails with a little fluidity.The betalains pigment of beet root is sequestered in the vacuole of the beet root cells. When the membrane condition is altered because of temperature variation, pH variations, the membrane becomes weak and loses its pigment content. The phospholipid bi-layer is soluble in an organic solvent. Ethanol is the most common organic solvent. When ethanol is used for the extraction of the pigment from the beetroot, it dissolves the phosphor lipid bi layer and thus makes the membrane permeable. The betalains thus diffuses out of the membrane due to the concentration gradient. As this is a water soluble pigment, it results in the color of the solution. The intensity of the red-purple color in the solution will indicate the diffusivity level of the pigment. Hence the effect of concentration of ethanol may increase the color of the solution. This is a predictive hypothesis.
The predictive hypothesis will give a tentative answer to the question that is under the investigation. (faculty.uca.edu). So the experiment was designed such that the independent variable ethanol is applied to the experimental group and it is controlled in the control group. According to our hypothesis, the control group had 0% ethanol and the experimental group had
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However, there are times when drinking alcohol gets out of hand and leads towards alcoholism (alcohol addiction). Those are one of the few times when uncontrolled alcohol consumption actually affects the people around the women already. Although the people in their lives can just shake off the negative effects that alcoholism had on the woman, there is no way that a pregnant woman who drank heavily can ever escape the repercussions of her actions.
According to Wilhelm Kuhn (Kuhne, 1997) enzymes are biological molecules which increases or reduces the rate of a biochemical reaction. A catalase is an enzyme that grows in the presence of oxygen. Hydrogen peroxide is highly toxic and therefore its need to be eliminated.
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The rate at which the enzyme works is influenced by the following factors (users.rcn.com):
1. Concentration of the substrate molecules: The rate of the reaction is directly proportional to the number of substrate molecules
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Let’s discuss causes and effects of alcohol.
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The reputation of alcohol as an
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evidence was recorded to show that the toxicity of the yellow pigment extract was different from the toxicity of the control, after a time period of 24 hours.
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