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They state that Critical Theory strives hard to liberate and enslave human beings through transformation of various conditions and circumstances. This theory also aids in descriptive and normative base in social inquiry where it seeks to reduce command and power, and increase freedom in all respective manners. Critical theories have gone through different historical phases and have passed several generations (Fellunga, 2002). Critical theory has set its aims, methods, theories, and explanations in both natural and social sciences and thus this theory is extended to ethics, political philosophy, and philosophy of history. Furthermore, critical theorists argue that enterprises do not have a practical approach in instrumental sense, but rather they have a keen interest in the moral sense. They do not strive to achieve some independent goal but instead they seek human liberation in coercion, repression, and domination. While the formulation of materialism stated, that critical theory has all the rights to function within the boundaries of division of labor. But within this scenario, philosophy normative stance has the right to condemn the ethics, principles and embodiment of reason (Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, 2005).
On the other hand, post modern theory or post modernism has been derived after modernism but both these terms have a wide distinction among each other. Modernism is concerned with identity, unity, authority, and certainty while post modernism reflects difference, separation, textuality, and skepticism. Post modernism originated from architecture and covered two main theories; deconstruction and post structuralism. This theory is used not only in art-related fields but it also assists in marketing & business, law and culture fields. Basically post modernism are those group of critics who are inspired by the postmodern culture in which they live
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Post-modern organization theory reviews the assumptions of power in terms of the manner in which they articulate themselves as the central foci of organizational behavior. Modernism elevated certain positions and naturalized them in a way that posed obstacles in probing some of the key assumptions, which indeed have been found to lack substance and merit.
As the assembly line was refined, Ford looked to the way in which the worker was engaged in the process and provided an incentive through welfare capitalism to create loyalty and promote stakeholder philosophies. In addition, he promoted the consumerist philosophy so that the workers could afford the products they helped to make, thus increasing demand.
Apparently, such an approach is easily accepted to be advantageous to the creative aspect of marketing, in a manner not necessarily inconsistent with the conventional way business is conducted. As one peruses further, one becomes aware that the larger implications of the broader application of the postmodern approach creates profound implications on the on way business is understood to be conducted.
Lyotard used the term modern “to designate any science that legitimates itself with reference to a metadiscourse of this kind making an explicit appeal to some grand narrative, such as the dialectics of the Spirit, the hermeneutics of learning, the emancipation of the rational or working subject, or the creation of wealth.”
In this book, the author has depicted the importance of analysing organisations with respect to theory, practice and revitalisation. The development of technology and modernisations has led towards various critical situations with respect to social and cultural aspects for organisations to conduct their business operations in an efficient manner.
1. Premodern: Signs express a "natural law of value" reflecting a reality that appears to exist in its own right and on its own terms. Symbols map an order that is extrinsic to language and culture. Example: Holy Scripture (signifier) reveals God's Law (as object or referent).
However, with all the changes that have challenged bureaucratic organizations, there was the advent of newer forms of organization, which have become more commonly and conveniently called the post-bureaucratic forms of organization.
This paper will identify the characteristics of post-bureaucratic organizations and determine the challenges and pressures that managers face in a post-bureaucratic environment.
3). Under this method, Weber noted that there was to be a system of rationality based on some legal procedures. While Weber’s system of bureaucracy has been adapted to some extent a number of institutions have sought it as a means to an end
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