Download file to see previous pages...
The levels of authority given to different individuals in an organisation are mainly determined by the structure of the organisation and the type of power used in any given organisation often determines the overall performance of the employees as well as its productivity levels.
There are mainly six types of power that are popular and these include: coercion, position, reward, support, knowledge and interpersonal (Krausz 1986). Coercion is based on fear or punishment where the responsible authorities would seek to ensure that all the members comply with the given instructions while position is related to the status of a person in the hierarchy of the organisation. Reward is based on the capacity to offer incentives on good performance while support is concerned with influencing the involvement of peers or workmates. Knowledge is based on the skills possessed by an individual and interpersonal is mainly concerned with communication skills by a particular individual.
Adaptive organisations which emphasize the flexibility to adapt to change can enhance creativity while bureaucratic, mechanistic or rigid structures will inhibit creativity Woodman (1995). An organisation which has a flat structure often promotes creativity and it helps promote easier communication and information sharing. In some cases, the appropriate reward system is essential for motivating employees to become innovative. When the employees have freedom and authority to participate in decision making process, they will have a positive attitude towards creativity and innovation. Open systems that promote participation and interaction also allow the free flow of information which in turn promotes mutual understanding among the employees. For instance, a case study of Ernest and Young showed that the organisation managed to increase employee retention level by about 9 % after the company began introducing open systems that gave autonomy to the workers while at the same time offering rewards
...Download file to see next pagesRead More
Therefore, it is vital that the schools of this area continue to enjoy recreation and sport facilities which are normally provided by the town administration. However, the current state of some of the sports and recreation facilities that schools and towns have are inadequate.
II. The company must have a short position (i.e. sell) ASX 90 days interest rate futures contract because it would be a future borrower on the spot market. III. Number of contracts is computed as: contract amount*hedge ratio/ price of the futures contract.
Analytical Essay Name Institution Course Tutor Date Analytical Essay Human beings have been managing organizations, people and themselves since the beginning of the economic activities and formation of organizations. Managing refers to the process that involves, planning, organizing, controlling and directing individuals in order to achieve organizational goals (Lorenzana, 1993).
Even where governance is by people who own the majority stakes, their own positions and the respect, they command are contingent upon their competence rather than ownership (Ahuja, 2005 880).
" Management is the art of getting things done through other people.
Philosophies, theories, techniques and models associated with “change” and “change management” exist in abundance, all of which strive, with varying degrees of reliability and success to offer meaningful insights into the means and modes of achieving
important issues, excellent communication skills so as to ensure that there are no conflicts which may arise due to poor delivery of information as well as the ability to make important decisions concerning the business (Pareek, 2003 p 28). These qualities are essential
Montana and Charnov define management as working with and through other people to achieve the goals of both the organization and its members. Emergency management deals with risks and how they can be avoided. Crisis management deals with risks and threats to the organization. However, it is more concerned with the management of an unpredictable event.
Many management theories have been developed that guide the managers about the art of managing effectively. However, there lies a gap between the actual practices of managers in an organization and the guidelines in the theories of management.
I expected a good presentation and could answer the questions that teachers raised perfectly. During the whole process for this poster presentation, I learned a lot but, not really satisfied with my work. In this
3 Pages(750 words)Essay
GOT A TRICKY QUESTION? RECEIVE AN ANSWER FROM STUDENTS LIKE YOU!
Let us find you another Essay on topic Theory and Practice in Management for FREE!