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th of a person to have a perfect immune system in the body in order to maintain the level of health and to be protective against various infections and diseases.
Before probing into the issue of discussing current developments regarding histocompatibility complex and then describing the importance of histocombatibility complex in transplantation, we should first get to know what immunology actually is. So starting with immunology, it is that sort of study that typically deals with the resistance against various diseases with the immune system. Pathak and Palan (2005) found that it is the study of human immune system and also it is the field of medicine that has a relation with treatment of those diseases which are related to the immune system. Various types of immunology include clinical immunology, developmental immunology, classical immunology, diagnostic immunology, experimental immunology, reproductive immunology and evolutionary immunology.
If we talk about immunity, it is the system or mechanism which deals with certain diseases whereas immune system is that sort of network that consists of such systems of the body which have an interaction with each other. Such systems include lymph system, the skin, white blood cells and the bone marrow. Male (2003) found that immunology is a very broad field of medicine study because of the wideness of immune system as it involves everything from the blood cells of the body to even the skin. While talking about immunology, we must also mention those categories of diseases which fall under the immunology. Such categories include very harmful and deadly disease like AIDS and treatment of not so complex skin allergies.
Some common diseases related to the field of immunology are asthma and arthritis. These diseases of the immune system are caused due to the body’s hypersensitivity level to various substances. There also exist such disorders which are not possible to deal with only the help of body’s immune system or we
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They are basically lymphocytes that are large and granular and constitute approximately 15% of the total lymphocytes in the circulation. These cells do not have T cell receptors as well as CD3 proteins. The immunoglobulins IgM and IgD are also not present on their outer surface.
These cells play a similar role to that played by cytotoxic T Cells in adaptive immune response among vertebrates. The Natural Killer (NK) cells provide quick responses to cells infected by viruses and also respond to formation of tumors. The cells become active and start working at around three days after an infection has occurred.
These cell membrane molecules are called major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, also known as human leukocyte antigens (HLA) molecules, known to have high polymorphism due to the properties of the polypeptide chains that make up these molecules (Gershwin & Shoenfield 2000; Hughes & Nei 1989).
The antigens produced by human body itself are called self-antigens. However, thymus is capable of distinguishing between external and self-antigens through various mechanisms. Body’s response to self-antigens can trigger auto-immune disorders. Therefore, it develops tolerance towards self-antigens.
There are total of approximately 200 known genes and about 50 percent of them have got known functions. The complex has been further divided in subgroups of two classes MHC class I and MHC class II. There are three class I -chain genes, called HLA-A, -B, and-C, and three pairs of class II -chain & -chain genes, called HLA-DR, -DP, and -DQ (Bowers 2004) (Wikipedia 2006).
There are two principal forms of T-cells. These are CD4+ T-helper cells, and CD8+ T-cytotoxic cells. Each of these is named for the presence of CD4 and CD8 receptors on the surface of each cell type, and also according to the role they play in the immune system.
The cytotoxic T cells (Tc) will then recognize peptides attached to class I MHC molecules at the same time, the helper T cells (Th) identifies peptides attached to class II MHC molecules (Mayer, 2008).'
The MHC (RxPG News, 2006) is considered as one of the most varied regions of the human genome while its diversity is contemplated to have been shaped by extensively varying evolutionary influences.
Thus the Major Histocompatibility Complex or MHC is responsible for selective pressure that adaptively maintains genetic diversity in natural populations. Some other influences of the MHC include mating preference, vulnerability to diseases, cooperation, kin recognition, individual odours and immune recognition.
In recent years although 1-year survival after organ transplantation has improved markedly over the last 15 years, there has been little success in reversing the decline in long-term graft and patient survival that is seen